After completing the first circuit of the holding pattern, adjust the time for the second
outbound as necessary to achieve the desired inbound limit. For example, if the inbound leg
were 30 seconds too long, subtract 30 seconds from the outbound leg. Say you're in holding at
12,000 feet, and you begin timing you outbound leg. At the expiration of your one minute
timed leg, you make your turn to track inbound to the station. (You begin timing legs when
the turns are complete, wings are level, and you are proceedings inbound or outbound on the
desired track.) If it takes you one minute and thirty seconds to track inbound to your fix in this
situation, you must subtract thirty seconds from your outbound leg to compensate for the wind
For timed (non-DME) holding patterns, a method called the "6 T's" may help the student
remember the procedures for entering and maintaining a holding pattern. They are:
1. TIME - Note the time and/or start the stopwatch when wings level or abeam the station
(head of VCR needle passes 90 degree benchmark), whichever is last.
2. TURN - Turn in the appropriate direction to enter holding, or if already established in
holding, turn when needed to fly the pattern.
3. TRANSITION - Slow to 120 KIAS. As the airspeed approaches 120 KIAS reset power
as required to maintain 120 KIAS (approximately 450-500 FT-LBS). Retrim.
4. TWIST - Twist the holding course into the IND-350. This may be done any time after
the initial turn, but must be completed prior to the inbound turn.
5. TALK - Give a voice report if required.
6. TRACK - Once established on the inbound leg, adjust heading as necessary to track the
holding course (CDI bar should stay centered). If flying the outbound leg, simply maintain the
outbound heading plus or minus the crab for wind (Note: the CDI bar will not be centered on
the outbound leg).
We will see the "6 T's" again in Chapter 7 when timed approaches are covered.
In this unit of instruction, you have learned the procedures to follow should you be required
to hold during the approach or enroute phase of flight. You know that you must begin to slow
to holding airspeed within three minutes or reaching the holding fix. Holding airspeed for the
T-34 is 120 KIAS. For the T-39 it is 200 KIAS. You have learned that there are two types of
holding patterns: standard (right hand turns) and nonstandard (left hand turns). You have also
learned that there are three recommended ways to enter these patterns: direct entry, outbound
parallel, and teardrop. These entry procedures may be modified if the need arises.