Quantcast Introduction - P-8010120

 

Click here to make tpub.com your Home Page

Page Title: Introduction
Back | Up | Next

Click here for thousands of PDF manuals

Google


Web
www.tpub.com

Home

   
Information Categories
.... Administration
Advancement
Aerographer
Automotive
Aviation
Construction
Diving
Draftsman
Engineering
Electronics
Food and Cooking
Logistics
Math
Medical
Music
Nuclear Fundamentals
Photography
Religion
   
   

 



INSTRUMENT NAVIGATION
INTRODUCTION
The holding pattern is a defined area of space where aircraft are required to hold while
enroute or awaiting their clearance for approach to an airfield. All aircraft given the same
holding instructions must fly the same pattern separated only by altitude. Holding is most
often required when weather conditions are such that you cannot maintain visual separation.
Therefore, it is essential that you understand holding entry and pattern procedures to avoid
midair collisions. Any flight terminating at the carrier at night will be required to hold until
their assigned push time (approach time) arrives.
Holding is the maneuvering of an aircraft in relation to 'a navigational fix while awaiting
further clearance. The STANDARD no-wind holding pattern is flown by following a specified
holding course (along a radial) inbound to the holding fix, making a 180 turn to the right,
flying a heading outbound to parallel the holding course (radial) and making another 180 turn
to the right to intercept and follow the holding course (radial) inbound to the fix. The holding
pattern is NONSTANDARD when the turns are made to the left. Unless published or
otherwise instructed by Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC), aircrews are expected to
hold in a standard pattern. Because the primary navigation aid in the T-34 and T-39 is the
TACAN, most of your holding will be in relation to a TACAN radial and DME fix.
TACAN HOLDING
When you are assigned to hold in relation to a TACAN, the radial and DME of the holding
fix will be published (as on an approach plate) or will be assigned by ATC.
ATC clearances to holding generally consist of the following instructions if published
holding instructions are not available:
1. Direction of holding (compass point, relative to the fix)
2. Holding navaid
3. Radial and DME of the holding fix
4. Outbound leg lengths in NM, or the two outer limits (in NM) of the holding pattern
5. Altitude
6. Direction of turns
7. Expected Further Clearance
An example of holding instructions follows:
"1F51, hold on the Navy Oceana 120R/29 DME, from 29 to 39 miles, left turns. Maintain
15,000. Expect further clearance 2120Z."
Note that in this holding instruction the direction of holding is not stated, for it is implied in
the location of the holding fix and its relation to the outer limit of the holding pattern (Figure
1).
6-2 HOLDING


Privacy Statement - Press Release - Copyright Information. - Contact Us

Integrated Publishing, Inc.
6230 Stone Rd, Unit Q Port Richey, FL 34668

Phone For Parts Inquiries: (727) 493-0744
Google +