a. Handoff to the Final Controller. Precision approach radar, though highly accurate, is
quite limited in range and azimuth, thus it cannot be used to vector the aircraft downwind and
base legs. You will generally be handed off to the final controller on final or semi-final. The
final controller will first conduct a radio check, ask you to confirm your wheels are down, and
then continue to assign heading changes to properly position the aircraft on PAR final.
b. Maintaining alidepath and course. Once the final controller has established your
aircraft on final, he will say, "Do not acknowledge further transmissions." Further heading
changes will be assigned as necessary and at approximately five-six miles from the runway, you
will be told "approaching glidepath, begin descent." At this point, gradually reduce power to
approximately 500 ft-lbs and lower the nose to maintain 100 knots. Check for the descent rate
previously determined (approximately 400-500 FPM). The final controller will assign corrections
to enable you to maintain glidepath and course.
If the aircraft is observed to deviate above or below the glidepath, the pilot is given
the relative amount of deviation by use of terms "slightly" or "well" and needs to adjust his rate
of descent to return to the glidepath. Correct these deviations with coordinated pitch and power
changes. Maintain a constant airspeed during the approach. When power changes are required,
avoid excessive PCL movements. Corrections should be made immediately after instructions are
given or when deviations from established attitude or performance indications are desired to
return the aircraft to the glidepath.
Accuracy of heading is important for runway alignment during the final approach
phase. When instructed to make heading changes, make them immediately. Instructions to
turn are preceded by the phrase "turn right" or "turn left." To prevent overshooting, the angle of
bank should approximate the number of degrees to be turned, not to exceed a one-half standard
rate turn. After a new heading is directed, the controller assumes it is being maintained.
Additional heading corrections will be used based on the last assigned heading.
c. Suggested PAR techniques
(1) Due to the precision and quick reactions required during PAR final, the following
abbreviated scan has been found to be helpful: Attitude Gyro, Airspeed, RMI and
(2) Small heading corrections (less than 5°) cause numerous problems. Continue to
make coordinated turns using aileron and rudder but never use an angle of bank
greater than the number of degrees off heading. This eliminates the tendency to
overbank and miss the assigned heading.
(3) Generally the instructor will make all UHF transmissions and use of the ICS
should be held at a minimum.
(4) Once established on glidepath with 100 knots, the "glidepath" rate of descent will
be indicated on the VSI. Small nose attitude changes can be immediately detected on
this instrument. If the VSI begins to indicate a rate of descent greater than the
"glidepath" rate of descent, the nose is too low (and vice versa) and an adjustment is
necessary to avoid deviating from glidepath. Maintain 100 knots with nose attitude
and use small power corrections to adjust rate of descent.
INSTRUMENT DEPARTURES AND APPROACHES