your EFC expires. When it expires, leave holding, proceed to the IAF, and commence your
Frequently, you will be cleared for a specific number of turns in holding in lieu of being
given an EFC time. If, after receiving these instructions and clearance to commence the
approach, you should lose your radios, execute the prescribed number of turns, proceed to the
IAF and commence your approach.
Meeting An EFC Time
For example, if you have four minutes to the expiration of your EFC, you could fly a
pattern in which each 180° turn takes one minute (3° of turn/second), and in which each of the
legs requires one minute, making a total of four minutes. Any combination is acceptable, as
long as you stay on the holding side of the radial, do not exceed the outer DME limit of the
pattern, and fly the inbound course along the holding radial.
When utilizing a navaid other than TACAN, or other DME equipped navaid, the
procedures will vary somewhat. Because no distance reference is available without DME, you
will have to time your legs.
The rules regarding timing legs are:
14,000' MSL and below
= 1 minute
Above 14,000' MSL
= 1 1/2 minutes
In the case of non-DME holding, the navaid, itself, is the holding fix. So, if you were told
to hold utilizing a VOR or NDB station, you would hold directly over the navaid itself, and
your inbound leg would be timed appropriately according to your altitude.
The holding clearance would retain the essential elements and might sound like this:
"1F47 hold east of Saufley VOR, 12,000'; left turns, EFC 1930Z." And the pattern would
look like this:
Headwind or Tailwind Corrections in a Timed Holding Pattern