LOW-LEVEL AND TACTICAL FORMATION
There are a few specific details to be considered for each type of landmark.
Town. Look at the size and shape. Look at road patterns leading to and from the town.
Road. What is its direction? Does it have two lanes or four lanes? Are there any
prominent turns or intersections? Is the road paved or dirt?
Railroad Tracks. What is their direction? How many tracks (single or multiple track)?
Are there any prominent turns or crossings?
River. What is its direction? How wide is the river? Sometimes the only indication of a
river is a line of vegetation (as in South Texas). Does the river wind back and forth or is it fairly
straight? Are there any forks along the river? Is the river located on flat ground or in a valley?
Lake. How large is the lake? How is it shaped? Is there a dam? Are there any islands?
Do rivers flow into the lake?
Bridge. Not every bridge is shown on a chart; but where a highway or railroad crosses a
river, there is usually a bridge of some sort.
Crossing and Intersection. Usually there is an overpass or marked crossing when a road
or railroad crosses a major highway. Note how many roads make up the intersection and their
Airport. An airport can range from a single dirt strip to a multiple-runway complex. From
the charts, enroute supplement, and other FLIPs, you will get a fairly good description of the
airport. How many runways are there? What is the runway made of? If there is a rotating
beacon, where is it located? Although airports can be very helpful in identifying your position
(small dirt or abandoned runways are usually not helpful), avoid overflight to minimize potential
traffic conflicts. Also consider the direction and altitudes of any instrument approach procedures
into the airport. A quick look at an instrument approach plate will help you determine the best
direction of fly around most airports.
Terrain. Is there a large peak, deep canyon, or other prominent terrain feature? Examples
include a marsh, sand dunes, or other isolated features to help you fix your position.
LOW-LEVEL NAVIGATION 1-11