LOW-LEVEL AND TACTICAL FORMATION
Turnpoint. This circle symbol identifies those points from route entry to the IP used to
identify turns. Circle the turnpoint so as not to obliterate detail.
Checkpoint. A checkpoint may or may not be marked with a particular symbol. It may be
identified as easily as remembering it from your route study, highlighting it with a marker,
marking it with an arrow, or actually circling it. Checkpoints are used to update your course and
time between turnpoints.
Initial Point (IP). This square symbol identifies the turnpoint prior to the drop zone. It is
a prominent point where an accurate track and time hack can be obtained. Since the IP is so vital
to your ability to find the drop zone, make it distinctive. A good technique is to limit your
heading change over the IP to 30° or less to ensure accuracy in navigation and timing.
Whenever possible, plan your low-level so you do not need to turn over the IP. Recheck your
clock at the IP for the run-in.
4. Drop Zone/Landing Zone. This triangle symbol identifies the ground reference for you to
be over on time for air-drop or touching down for air-land! If you plan the flight correctly and
fly the plan accurately, you will find yourself over the target on time.
Advisory Box. This symbol is used anywhere on the chart when information needs to be
highlighted. Examples of information included in an advisory box include mandatory reporting
points, frequency changes, or a route restriction with which you need to comply.
Course Arrow Box. This symbol is used at each turnpoint and the IP. There should be
enough information contained in the course arrow box to enable you to fly the low-level.
However, too much information will keep your head inside the cockpit at a time when you need
to be flying the aircraft. You can personalize the information as you see fit.
Alternate and Emergency Airfields. This symbol is used to mark all suitable airfields
that may be used for divert fields in case of aircraft emergencies, weather, etc.
Controlling Obstacle. This diamond symbol is used to mark the highest manmade
obstacle, structure or terrain feature within 5 NM either side of your course. This point is used
to determine your Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA). This symbol will also be used to mark the
Emergency Safe Altitude (ESA) which is based on the highest manmade obstacle, structure or
terrain feature within 22 NM of your course.
LOW-LEVEL NAVIGATION 1-13