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CHAPTER ONE
LOW-LEVEL AND TACTICAL FORMATION
TPC G-20D, Edition 13, May 93
N Delete
Tower
229 1344
35 55 40N
97 30 20W
N Add
Tower
295 1070
35 56 09N
96 16 46W
N Delete
Tower
300 1300
34 50 43N
97 37 03W
N Add
Tower
331 3513
33 39 47N
101 35 54W
N Delete
Tower
200 970
33 50 50N
96 40 42W
N Add
Tower
320 1117
33 30 30N
95 25 30W
N Change
Tower 345-840 to multi towers
500 987
33 38 50N
95 01 16W
N Add
Tower
709 3815
33 03 52N
101 52 35W
N Add
Tower
449 3287
32 57 18N
101 08 55W
N Add
Tower
500 1033
32 25 01N
96 46 11W
Figure 1-2 Updating Chart Manual Data
Locate the Drop Zone/Landing Zone and Initial Point (IP), Turnpoints, and Checkpoints.
1.
The Drop Zone/Landing Zone and Initial Point (IP). Locate the objective first. Drop
zones are normally defined as either circular or rectangular and by size. A rectangular drop zone
will have a defined run-in course, which the aircraft must follow during the run-in. A circular
drop zone does not have a specified run-in course and may be approached from any direction.
Landing Zones are anything from major airfields to dirt strips. Check the orientation, length,
width, low in close obstacles, and gather any other information that may impact your mission. In
either case, choose an easily recognizable IP approximately 10 minutes from the target. The IP
provides a last checkpoint from which a final heading and timing update for the run-in can be
made. Choosing an IP that requires a minimal initial heading change normally ensures a more
precise final course to the target. Prominent intersections of rivers, roads, or terrain features
make good IPs.
2.
Selecting Turnpoints and Checkpoints. A checkpoint is a landmark used to identify the
aircraft's position. Be sure to select a checkpoint with a distinctive feature so you will be able to
positively identify it. Look for a peculiar bend in a road or river, an odd shaped lake or town, the
highest terrain in the area, or an airfield with a distinctive runway layout. Checkpoints should be
fixes that you anticipate being able to find. Figure 1-3 describes good features to use for
checkpoints. The position of the fix, relative to its anticipated position, provides course
guidance information. Arrival over checkpoints at an anticipated time confirms the accuracy of
the wind prediction and indicates reliability of the predicted track and GS. If checkpoints are
crossed at the wrong time, the GS is in error. If the aircraft passes near but not over a
checkpoint, the ground track is off. These statements assume you are planning on flying directly
over a checkpoint. You may use checkpoints that are near, yet not on, the route. A checkpoint
directly on course may be hard to find when you are directly over it. Use it as an aiming point
instead. The interval you choose between checkpoints depends on the speed of your aircraft and
the availability of checkpoints. Pick a distinctive checkpoint where a change in direction will be
made. Turning directly over the turnpoint will place you on course for the next leg. Choose an
1-8 LOW-LEVEL NAVIGATION


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