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LOW-LEVEL AND TACTICAL FORMATION
CHAPTER ONE
Time ahead
Time to hold
or behind
speed change
(seconds)
(minutes)
10
1 min
15
1 min 30 sec
20
2 min
25
2 min 30 sec
30
3 min
35
3 min 30 sec
40
4 min
45
4 min 30 sec
50
5 min
55
5 min 30 sec
Figure 1-12 Incremental Method
107. FLYING THE ROUTE
Route Entry. This is probably the most difficult part of low-level training. Get your chart out
and begin DR right after takeoff (complete your checklists before you pull out the chart). You
will be more successful if you begin with a known point (your departure base) and then chart
read continuously to the route entry. If possible, have a radial/DME backup for the entry point.
This will help you locate ground features and prevent you from becoming temporarily
disoriented prior to route entry. Try to identify the entry point as early as possible to allow for
time to get lined up, coordinate with the appropriate agencies, etc.
Call "ready, ready, hack" at the entry point and hack both clocks. Broadcast entering the route
and route flying on base frequency. Notify FSS on 255.4 when entering an IR or VR route.
Give them your call sign, route, entry point and time, and exit point and time. Because your
route probably has alternate entry and exit points, be sure to announce the points you will be
using to the applicable agency. There is no requirement listed in FLIP AP/1B to contact any
ATC agency when entering an SR route, but FLIP does state that you should monitor 255.4 if it
is not detrimental to your mission. Work hard to achieve a smooth route entry so you do not
start behind the power curve.
On the Low-Level. Clearing (outside scan) cannot be overemphasized! Typically, most
student pilots will be guilty of "thumbing the charts." It is very unlikely you can effectively
clear with your head down, thumbing your chart. A thorough route study on the ground must
include an examination and explanation of how the terrain is laid out, both on and to either side
of the route. A proper understanding of DR will maximize training and flight safety. Update
points should be preplanned; they should not just occur every half-mile.
LOW-LEVEL NAVIGATION 1-27


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