LOW-LEVEL AND TACTICAL FORMATION
be playing the role of the receiver. All aerial refueling simulation training shall be conducted in
VMC and aircraft shall remain well clear of clouds. VMC rendezvous require 5 NM visibility.
Air Refueling Initial Point (ARIP)-A point established prior to the ARCP. This point is part of
the Air Refueling (AR) track and aids in identifying the receiver and determining their heading.
Receivers should be at the ARIP prior to ARCT and inbound to the ARCP. This will assist in
placing both aircraft in a position for rendezvous at the ARCP. Receiver aircraft shall be
established at the joinup altitude at the ARIP.
Air Refueling Control Point (ARCP)-The planned point where the tanker arrives abeam the
receiver and assumes formation lead.
Air Refueling Control Time (ARCT)-A specified time coordinated between the tanker and
receiver(s). The receiver(s) will arrive at the ARCP at the ARCT or earlier and the tanker will
arrive at the ARCP at the ARCT or later. An effort should be made to arrive at the ARCP within
2 minutes of the ARCT.
The tanker will normally accomplish all required maneuvering during rendezvous with the
exception of the tanker orbit rendezvous. A minimum vertical separation of 1000 feet shall be
maintained between the tanker and receiver during rendezvous until positive visual contact has
been established. Also, the tanker and receiver(s) shall not close within 1 NM of each other until
positive visual contact has been established. The aircraft conducting the rendezvous, normally
the tanker, is responsible for this separation. The altimeter setting will be the nearest station
altimeter. Minimum visibility for a VMC rendezvous is 5 NM. After initial radio contact has
been established between the tanker and receiver, the tanker will assume radio control of the
rendezvous. Refueling airspeed will typically be 170 KIAS. The different types of rendezvous
that will be practiced in this syllabus are: 1) Strategic Tanker Modified Point Parallel, 2)
Tactical Tanker Head-On Offset (low speed), 3) Tanker Orbit (VMC only), and 4) Enroute
(overtaking). These procedures are somewhat modified from what you will be accomplishing in
the MV-22 due to TC-12 restrictions, but are very similar.
Tactical Tanker Head-On Offset Rendezvous (Low Speed)
During this rendezvous, the receiver(s) will maintain 1000 feet below the refueling altitude while
inbound from the ARIP to the ARCP at 150 KIAS. The tanker will be at refueling altitude at
170 KIAS and will roll in directly over, or slightly offset from, the lead receiver. The receiver(s)
will normally be in a left echelon and stepped down. When the tanker is in sight and gives the
clearance, the receiver formation will climb/close to the observation position (45º bearing off of
tanker, 200 feet aft and 200 feet out) and accelerate to 170 KIAS. Prior to join up, the tanker
airspeed will be 210 KIAS and the receiver's airspeed will be 150 KIAS outside the ARCP. The
tanker approaches the receiver(s) on the reciprocal of the air refueling (AR) track with an
approximate 3 NM offset from the track. Normally, the tanker will plan to make a left, standard
TACTICAL/AERIAL REFUELING PROCEDURES