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CHAPTER ONE
LOW-LEVEL AND TACTICAL FORMATION
If you elect to continue the route, select a specific point, preferably a turnpoint, and positively
identify it. Then descend to the point and try to arrive over the point on the heading to the
following point. Make sure to hack your clock so you will be able to maintain positional
awareness for the remainder of your route.
If you realize you are totally lost, stay on your original heading, establish maximum endurance
airspeed, and climb to an appropriate VFR altitude that will give you terrain clearance. Attempt
contact with a FSS or ARTCC for the area you are flying in. A simple memory aid is "climb,
conserve, confess."
111. COMMON ERRORS
You should be able to locate a visual fix without a doubt in your mind that it is the right one.
Some common map reading errors include:
1.
Not holding desired heading and airspeed.
2.
Trying to find ground features on the chart; always go from the clock, to the map, to the
ground.
3.
Selecting points too far apart; select the closest feature or landmarks you think you will
see.
4.
Attempting to look for points too close to the aircraft.
5.
Overflying points due to underestimating speed.
6.
Continuing on a route when lost.
7.
Not turning on time if turnpoint is not found.
8.
Misreading the time and losing positional awareness.
9.
Not considering all factors to allow best observation of ground features.
10.
Not properly backing up the pilot on aircraft control (e.g., altitude, airspeed, and heading).
1-32 LOW-LEVEL NAVIGATION


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