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CHAPTER THREE
LOW-LEVEL AND TACTICAL FORMATION
Cover
The command, (Call sign), Cover, can be added to any of the other formation maneuvers to tell
the wingman to break the horizontal plane with lead by either increasing or decreasing altitude.
For example, the command, (Call sign), Crossturn, Cover, if given in the low-altitude regime,
would tell the wingman to increase altitude to break the horizontal plane with lead. This
command is particularly useful in crossturns and break turns since it is often difficult to avoid
creating a linear target when executing these turns during an engagement. For purposes of
training, the wingman shall always maintain 200 feet of step up during tactical maneuvers.
Scatter Plan
A scatter plan is a planning tool devised for use on a mission if a threat is unable to be
suppressed and affects the primary route of flight. It provides an alternate route(s) and
appropriate re-join procedures for the formation. The scatter plan must be thorough and
extensive and be able to be utilized with minimum confusion. Formations should plan to scatter
in sections (2 aircraft). Typically, this involves rejoining the formation at the last known safe
checkpoint on ingress to the objective area or at the next checkpoint along the route of flight on
egress.
LZ Transition
When making a transition from the IP (initial point) into a landing zone (LZ), planning is key.
In-depth knowledge of the LZ and the objective area is imperative to operate safely. You should
know what markings will be present to properly identify the LZ. Also, you should know what
approach you will employ upon reaching the zone or airfield and be prepared to fly an alternate
approach if needed. Your approach to the LZ should be tactical in nature, limiting your exposure
in the area. Emphasis should be placed on being fully briefed on all specific procedures for a
particular LZ and arriving at the zone at a pre-planned target time (within +/- 1 minute). Also, it
is imperative that ingress and egress are fully discussed in regards to vulnerabilities to the enemy
and probable point of first enemy contact.
302. AERIAL REFUELING
In this syllabus, aerial refueling procedures will be simulated. However, the training
accomplished will lay a foundation that will assist in your training in the MV-22.
Aerial refueling may be divided into four stages of operation: rendezvous, join-up, contact/fuel
transfer, and post air refueling. All refueling operations require thorough planning and
coordination to address communications, lighting, navigation, position reporting and airspace.
Here at Navy Corpus, communication between the simulated tanker and receiver must be
maintained on the interplane frequency at all times and proper coordination must be made with
ATC. Typically, refueling procedures will be simulated in the Seagull or Delta Working Areas.
Try and be established in a working altitude block that provides 2000 feet of vertical
maneuvering space. With the refueling altitude in the middle of the block, this will allow plenty
of altitude to appropriately accomplish a safe breakaway if necessary. As the student, you will
3-8
TACTICAL/AERIAL REFUELING PROCEDURES


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