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control rate of closure. If Lead has commenced turnout, use radius of turn to expedite rendezvous. Wing
will take position in starboard parade as soon as practical. This is a demanding maneuver due to the lack of
perceived relative motion during the initial stages of the rendezvous. When relative motion first appears,
reduce power to control closure rate. If closure rate cannot be controlled with power at idle, execute an
under-run. Once joined, transmit "Two's aboard, starboard side." Lead will begin issuing maneuver
commands at this time.
Under-Run. If Wing fails to recognize or control a rapid closure rate, execute under-run
procedures. Wing will transmit "Under-running" and then:
If the Lead is not in a turn:
Increase step-down.
Keep Lead in sight.
Reduce power to idle to avoid passing ahead of Lead.
Do not cross under Lead; rather, increase lateral separation.
When relative motion is under control, join in the assigned position.
If the Lead is in a turn:
Increase step-down.
Keep Lead in sight.
Level wings and move outside Lead's turn.
Reduce power to idle to avoid passing ahead of Lead.
When relative motion is under control, join in the assigned position.
To position yourself on Lead's 45 bearing (45 aft of Lead's wing), place the tip of Lead's
VHF/UHF antenna on the leading edge tip of the horizontal stabilizer. Use of this checkpoint
provides step-down. For "turns into," this sight picture remains the same because Wing turns
on Lead's axis. For turns "away from," Wing turns on his/her own axis, maintaining altitude.
For this sight picture, envision a 5' long antenna; keep it lined up with the stabilizer leading
edge tip. To keep step-down, put Lead's outboard nacelle on the horizon. If there is no
suitable horizon, keep half of the outboard nacelle exhaust opening visible below Lead's
The "double step-down" position, which will be used for crossunders, lead changes, and
rendezvous, is identified by keeping half of Lead's outboard nacelle exhaust stack opening on
the bottom of the fuselage.
Identify the 60 bearing (30 aft of Lead's wing) by placing Lead's opposite wingtip out of
sight behind the vertical stabilizer. Alternately, when in close, you can place the star insignia
on the tip of the leading edge of the horizontal stabilizer.
Use the 20 bearing (70 aft of Lead's wing) during cruise flight. It can be identified by lining
up the exposed portion of the main landing gear tire with the nose of the lead aircraft.
Maintain step-down in cruise by holding the leader slightly above the horizon, or in the top
half of the windscreen.
Parade Position. The parade position is flown with the Wing joined on the 45 bearing. Step-down
will be approximately 20', nose-to-tail separation approximately 15', with 10' lateral separation between
Wing's nose and Lead's wingtip. Distance between aircraft down the bearing line is approximately 25-30
Parade Turns. Parade turns are made at 30 AOB, roll rate 2-3 degrees per second, with Wing
maintaining parade position throughout. For turns away, Wing must add power. For turns into, Wing must

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