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slow and deliberate maneuvers. Wing must anticipate the lead aircraft's descent with caution. The tendency
is to allow step-down to decrease and begin to under-run the Lead during the initial stages of the descent.
(15)  The Break. While inbound, ensure Wing is positioned on the appropriate side for runway in use.
Lead will establish the flight at break altitude on extended runway centerline. When cleared to break, Lead
will check Wing in proper position, rapidly roll into a 45 AOB level break and maintain power through the
first 90 of turn to increase interval. Once on downwind, descend to 800' and 120 KIAS.
Wing will make a 45 AOB level break when Lead approaches the nine o'clock position. Once established
in the turn, reduce power to 500 ft-lbs of torque. MAINTAIN VISUAL CONTACT WITH LEAD. If
closing on the leader, the Wingman can maintain separation by reducing AOB to move wider abeam. On
downwind descend to 800'.
The Flight Leader can modify these procedures so that Wing breaks 3 seconds after Lead. In this case Lead
must hold power until established downwind.
Extend gear and flaps when airspeed permits (not in unison). Approaching the 180 with the Landing
Checklist complete, Lead will call the tower, "Navy Tower, Montana 417 dash one, left 180, three down
and locked, full stop." Wing will duplicate this call using "Dash 2" as his/her callsign. At the IP's
discretion with minimum runway separation requirements met, the Wing may land while the Lead is still on
the runway.
If another break evolution is desired, Lead should advise approach control/tower of intentions during the
initial recovery. The flight will make touch and go's, join in a running rendezvous during departure, effect
a standard lead change and re-enter for the break via course rules. Coordinate with approach control to
remain at 1000' for reentry. This will make for a smoother evolution.
(16)  Instrument Approach Exposure. A section instrument approach may be flown, in VMC, to gain
experience in precision formation flight. Instrument procedures and configurations remain the same as for
normal approaches with the following exceptions:
Flap and landing gear extensions are a delicate maneuver requiring close coordination. The
Lead may elect to fly a no-flap approach. Prior to making a configuration change, Lead must
advise Wing with "Standby for flaps/gear." Lead transmits, "Flaps/gear now now now" and
extends on the third "now." Wing also extends on Lead's third "now," controlling any
ballooning effects. With configuration changes complete, Wing reports "Landing Checklist
complete" to Lead.
Fly the final approach course or G/S to not less than 300' AGL or as directed by ATC. At this
point Lead will begin a go-around and advise the controller of intentions. Wing will continue
the descent to a normal landing.
WARNING: The lead aircraft may create significant down wash when going around.
(17)  Dissimilar Aircraft Formation. Dissimilar formation is defined as formation flight consisting of
two or more different types of aircraft. Although dissimilar formation training in the T-44A is discouraged,
a thorough understanding of some of the hazards of dissimilar formation is important to your Navy flying
When aircraft fly in formation, they produce mutual interference of the flow patterns around each aircraft.
This change in the aerodynamics can require prompt pilot action to prevent a collision. Most formation
flight is practiced with similar aircraft, therefore the aircraft characteristics, limitations, and P responses are
known in advance. During dissimilar formation, the location and magnitude of wingtip vortices, downwash,
or interference patterns may not be known until encountered, often with fatal results. Dissimilar formation
flight can be done safely (if authorized by your command) after thorough planning, briefing, and much
NOTE: Most tactical jets are in the "Large Aircraft" wake turbulence category (including such "small" jets as the
A-4 and F-16).

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