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F. Takeoff and Landing Data (TOLD).
Takeoff and Landing Data encompasses all performance data for a flight. Without this knowledge you are
a potential accident. The performance charts in the NATOPs Manual are based on operating procedures
and conditions explained either in the text or on the chart itself. The takeoff and climb performance is the
most important operational consideration because payload and/or range may be reduced due to limiting
takeoff conditions. In fact, we easily have the performance to land at many fields that we then cannot take
off from. Reducing our takeoff gross weight is the easiest way to improve our takeoff and climb
performance (another option is to wait for better takeoff conditions - lower temperatures, stronger
headwinds, or dry runways). If you are cross-country and know you may need to limit takeoff weight to
preserve performance, you should not have the fuel tanks filled until you can determine your gross weight
Takeoff Gross Weight Limitations. All takeoff and initial climb performance is planned with one situation
in mind: safe continued operation after an engine failure. Here are some basic considerations to establish a
safe takeoff gross weight:
We are required to be able to accelerate to rotation speed, lose an engine, and stop on the runway.
In other words, our accelerate-stop distance must be equal to or less than runway length. The
limiting factor, here at NGP, is most often our accelerate-stop distance on days with wet runways.
We are required to be able to climb at a gradient steep enough to clear obstacles if an engine fails.
In other words, our one-engine inoperative climb gradient must be 200 feet/nautical mile or the
published obstacle clearance climb gradient for the departure procedure. In many cases, this is the
most restrictive of all aircraft performance factors, especially at high-density altitudes and in
mountainous terrain.
Accelerate-Go Distance. This may need to be considered if departing in bad weather conditions
from an airport with a runway end crossing height.
Enroute Limitations. Another limiting factor to consider in preflight planning is our one-engine inoperative
service ceiling; minimum enroute altitudes (MEAs) over mountainous areas are sometimes higher than the
one-engine service ceiling.
Weight & Balance Computations. A Weight and Balance Clearance Form F is required for every flight.
Normally, the pre-computed Form F found in the binder at maintenance issue is sufficient. If four or more
souls are onboard the aircraft for cross-country departures or detachment operations, a new Form F must be
computed to ensure the aircraft is under the structural weight limitations (check the maximum takeoff
weight and compute/check the maximum landing weight) and has its center of gravity within limits for both
takeoff and landing.
G. SIDs, DPs, STARs, IAPs.
Planning the Departure.
Each pilot, prior to departing an airport on an IFR flight should consider the type of terrain and other
obstacles on or in the vicinity of the departure airport and:
determine whether a Standard Instrument Departure (SID) is published or a Departure Procedure
(DP) is available for obstacle avoidance, and
determine what action will be necessary and take such action assuring a safe departure.
Planning the Arrival.
If you are destined to locations where STARs have been published, you should file the appropriate
STAR for the destination airport and/or review the STARs and be ready to receive a clearance for
Preparation for flying an instrument approach begins with a study of the approach depiction
during preflight planning. The end result of an approach--a landing or a missed approach--can be
directly dependent upon the pilot's familiarity with the approach depiction.

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