JOINT ADVANCED MULTI-ENGINE T-44A
Holding Pattern in Lieu of Procedure Turn (HILO PT).
The HILO PT is another common way to execute a low altitude course reversal. The HILO PT is depicted
like any other holding pattern except the holding pattern track is printed with a heavy black line (bold) in
the plan view. The depiction of the approach in the profile view varies depending on where the descent
from the minimum holding altitude should begin.
Flying the Holding Pattern. Enter and fly the HILO PT holding pattern according to the holding procedures
described in section 404.
Descent. If cleared for the approach, descent may be made to the minimum holding altitude when
established in holding (initial passage of the holding fix). Descent from the minimum holding altitude may
be depicted in two ways: descent at the holding fix or descent on the inbound leg. When a descent is
depicted on the inbound leg, you must be established on the inbound segment of the approach before
beginning the descent.
Additional Guidance for HILO PTs. If cleared for the approach while holding in a published HILO PT,
complete the holding pattern and commence the approach without making additional turns in the holding
pattern (altitude permitting). If an additional turn is needed to lose excessive altitude, request clearance
from ATC since additional circuits of the holding pattern are not expected by ATC. If the aircraft is at an
altitude from which the approach can be safely executed and you are ready to turn inbound immediately,
you may request approval for an early turn.
C. Procedural Tracks.
Procedural tracks employ arcs, radials, courses, turns, etc. Most commonly found are arc/radial
combinations and specified teardrop tracks. When a specific flight path is required, procedural track
symbology is used to depict the flight path between the IAF and FAF. The depiction used is a heavy black
line showing intended aircraft ground track.
Entry. When over the IAF, turn immediately in the shorter direction to intercept the published track. If
your heading is within 90° of the procedure track course, you may use normal lead points to intercept the
course. If your heading is not within 90° of the course, overfly the fix and turn in the shorter direction to
intercept the procedure track course. Protected airspace is provided for this turn.
Maneuvering. Conform to the specific ground track shown on the IAP. Where a teardrop turn is depicted,
you may turn to the inbound course at any time unless otherwise restricted by the approach plate.
Determine when to turn by using the aircraft turn performance, winds, and the amount of descent required
on the inbound course; however, do not exceed the published remain within distance.
Published Lead Radials. Lead radials are required to be published when the course change from the initial
to intermediate segment exceeds 90°; a radial or bearing which provides at least two miles of lead is
identified to assist in leading the turn onto the intermediate course. Where you actually lead the turn is
your discretion; it will vary with groundspeed. Again, about 0.8 NM works well as a no-wind lead point
for a 90° turn at 150 KIAS.
Descent. A descent can be depicted at any point along the procedural track.
IAF. When a descent is depicted at the IAF, start descent when abeam or past the IAF and on a parallel or
intercept heading to the procedural track course. Except for initial descents at an IAF, be established on the
appropriate segment of the procedural track before descending to the next altitude shown on the IAP.
CAUTION: Maximum designed obstacle clearance is based on the your ability to maintain the course centerline;
you must use your position orientation and your judgment to determine when to descend while attempting to
intercept the procedural track.
Depicted Teardrop. Where a teardrop is depicted, do not descend from the turn altitude until you are
established on the inbound segment of the procedural track.
RADIO INSTRUMENTS STAGE