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Page Title: Precision Approach Radar (PAR)
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Complying with ATC. During the transition to final, the radar controller directs heading and altitude
changes as required to position the aircraft on final approach. Turns and descents should be initiated
immediately after instructed. Perform turns by establishing an AOB which will approximate a standard
rate turn for the TAS flown but not to exceed 30 of bank.
Orientation. Use available navigation aids to remain position-oriented in relation to the landing runway
and the glide slope intercept point. The controller will advise you of the aircraft position at least once
before starting final approach.
1. Precision Approach Radar (PAR).
Starts. The precision final approach starts when the aircraft is within range of the precision radar
and contact is established with the final controller. Normally this occurs at approximately 8 miles
from touchdown.
Final Descent. Approximately 10 to 30 seconds before final descent, the controller will advise the
aircraft is approaching the glidepath. When the aircraft reaches the point where final descent is to
start, the controller will state "begin descent." At that point, establish the predetermined rate of
descent. Adjust power as required to maintain desired airspeed. When the airspeed and glidepath
are stabilized note the power, attitude, and vertical velocity. Use these values as guides during the
remainder of the approach.
Controller Guidance. The controller issues course and glidepath guidance, and frequently informs
you of any deviation from course or glidepath. The controller's terminology will be: "on course,
on glide path; slightly/well above/below glidepath"; or "slightly/well left/right of course".
Controllers may also issue trend information to assist you in conducting a PAR approach.
Examples of trend information phraseologies used are: going above/below glidepath, holding
above/below glidepath, holding left/right of course, etc. Trend information may be modified by
the use of the terms "rapidly" or "slowly" as appropriate. The terms "slightly" or "well" are used
in conjunction with the trend information.
Corrections. Corrections should be made immediately after instructions are given or when
deviation from established attitude or desired performance is noted. Avoid excessive throttle,
pitch, or bank changes. Normally pitch changes of 1 will be sufficient to correct back to glide
Heading Control. Accurate heading control is important for runway alignment during the final
approach phase. When instructed to make heading changes, make them immediately. Heading
instructions are preceded by the phrase "turn right" or "turn left." To prevent overshooting, the
AOB should approximate the number of degrees to be turned, not to exceed a one-half standard
rate turn. After a new heading is directed, the controller assumes it is being maintained.
Additional heading corrections will be based on the last assigned heading.
Decision Height. Decision Height (DH) is the height at which a decision must be made during a
precision approach to either continue the approach or to execute a missed approach. Descent
below DH is not authorized until sufficient visual reference with the runway environment has been
established. The controller will advise the pilot when the aircraft reaches the published DH. DH
is determined in the cockpit either as read on the altimeter or when advised by the controller,
whichever occurs first. The controller will continue to provide advisory course and glidepath
information until the aircraft passes over the landing threshold at which time the controller will
advise "over landing threshold." To provide a smooth transition from instrument to visual
conditions, a systematic scan for runway environment should be integrated into the crosscheck
prior to reaching DH. (Two NATOPS qualified aviators must be at the controls to utilize
minimums lower than 200'; refer to the VT-31 SOP and OPNAV 3710.7)
Single Engine PAR. Fly the single engine PAR in accordance with procedures described above in
"Single Engine Precision Approach." Request a "ten second gear warning" (prior to descent) from
the GCA final controller to aid in configuring the aircraft.

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