JOINT ADVANCED MULTI-ENGINE T-44A
course will depend upon several variables. These are the rate of turn to be used, the angle of
interception, and the rate of movement of the bearing pointer. The rate of movement of the bearing
pointer is governed by the size of the arc being flown, aircraft true airspeed, wind direction and
velocity. Approximately 5 radials works well as a no-wind lead point for a 90° turn in the T-44 at
150 KIAS on a 10 DME arc.
Turn. When the lead point is reached, turn to intercept the selected course.
Maintaining an Arc.
Control aircraft heading to keep the bearing pointer on or near the 90° index (reference point) and
the desired range in the range indicator. A reference point other than the 90° index must be used
when operating in a crosswind. If the aircraft drifts toward the station, select a reference point below
the 90° index. If the drift is away from the station, select a reference point above the 90° index. The
selected reference point should be displaced from the 90° index an amount equal to the required drift
correction. Two techniques for maintaining the arc are:
Bank Angle. Establish a small bank angle that will result in a rate of turn keeping the bearing
pointer on the selected reference point and the desired range in the range indicator.
Short Legs. Fly a series of short, straight legs to maintain the arc. To fly an arc in this manner,
adjust the aircraft heading to place the bearing pointer 5 to 10 degrees above the selected reference
point. Maintain heading until the bearing pointer moves 5 to 10 degrees below the reference point.
The range should decrease slightly while the bearing pointer is above the reference point, and
increase slightly when below the reference point.
Corrections. A technique to correct back to the arc: change aircraft heading to displace the bearing
pointer 5° below the reference point for each one-half mile deviation to the inside of the arc, and 10°
above the reference point for each one-half mile outside the arc.
Bearing and range information from a VOR/DME or TACAN facility is sufficient for navigating direct
to any point within reception range. The following are some techniques to accomplish a point-to-
Tune. Tune the TACAN or VOR/DME equipment.
Turn. If not proceeding in the general direction of the desired point, turn to a heading approximately
halfway between the head of the bearing pointer and the radial on which the desired point is located.
This step is optional, but the objective is to turn in the general direction of the desired point rather than
fly away from the point while attempting to determine a precise heading.
HSI. If using the HSI, the desired radial (e.g., R-038 for RYNOL) should be set under the heading
marker using the HDG select knob and the aircraft turned to a heading between the head of the
bearing pointer and the head of the course arrow.
Initial Turn. The initial turn may be adjusted to roll out on a heading other than halfway between the
bearing pointer and desired radial. If the range must be decreased, roll out on a heading closer to the
bearing pointer. If the range must be increased, roll out on a heading closer to the desired radial.
Visualize. Visualize the aircraft position and the desired point on the compass card of the RMI or HSI.
The following factors must be understood when visually establishing the aircraft position and the
desired point on the compass card:
Station Location. The station is located at the center of the compass card, and the compass rose
simulates the radials around the station.
Aircraft Position. The aircraft position is visualized along the tail of the bearing pointer.
Point. The desired point is visualized along the desired radial from the station.
RADIO INSTRUMENTS STAGE