JOINT ADVANCED MULTI-ENGINE T-44A
(i) Waveoff straight ahead (SSE) at 110 KIAS; when safely climbing use right SRT to return to base
heading. The maneuver is complete when climbing on base heading at or above 110 KIAS or at the
discretion of the instructor.
Partial Panel Scan. Partial panel flight is the loss of primary attitude indications. In the T-44 this may occur
through individual component failure (gyros, indicators, God box, etc.) or loss of aircraft electrical power.
You are expected to be familiar with the situations under which this circumstance might occur and how to
troubleshoot it. Although loss of heading does not fall under the strict definition of partial panel flight, it is
standard BI practice to associate this failure with partial panel flight by failing both attitude and heading
indicators. Some electrical malfunctions will cause the loss of both heading and attitude indicators. Under
partial panel conditions, the pilot must obtain pitch and roll information from sources other than the attitude
indicator. Roll information (wing) is obtained from the turn needle/ball. Level flight (nose) is obtained from
the altimeter/VSI. Constant airspeed climbs/descents (nose) are obtained from airspeed crosschecked with
altimeter/clock and VSI. Refer to the IFM for a detailed discussion.
In an actual situation, if any of the pilot's indicators fail and the copilot's instruments are still
functioning properly, the controls should be transferred to the copilot. Partial panel flight in IMC
conditions is an emergency. Transfer communications to the nonflying pilot.
The magnetic compass is NOT reliable with the air conditioner, windshield heat, electric heat or
windshield wipers ("Big Four") on.
Timed Turns Using the Magnetic Compass.
(1) Heading indicator failure requires use of the magnetic compass for heading information. Remember
that this instrument provides reliable information only during straight and level unaccelerated flight. Due
to this limitation, timed turns are recommended when making heading changes. Use the wet compass as a
cross check before commencing the turn and after rolling out wings level.
(2) Note the magnetic compass heading while straight and level and compute the number of degrees
between the present heading and the desired heading. If the number is 30° or greater, divide the number of
degrees to be turned by the standard turn rate of 3° per second to find the duration of the turn; e.g., a 120°
turn will take 40 seconds. For turns of less than 30°, turn at a 2/3 needle width (1/3 SRT), for the number
of seconds equal to the degrees of turn; e.g., a 20° turn takes 20 seconds. Once timing has been computed,
roll into the turn smoothly. Do not use any lead when rolling in or rolling out of a turn. Begin the roll into
the turn when you commence timing and start your rollout at the completion of your timing. Attempt to
roll in and out of the turn at a constant rate. If, after rolling out, a correction is required, follow the steps
previously discussed. Do not exceed a SRT when partial panel.
(3) When making turns of greater than 90°, it is possible to use the magnetic compass as a rough
crosscheck, taking into account the inherent lead and lag. As previously discussed, the "big four" electrical
items must be secured if the magnetic compass is to be utilized for a cross check. Roll out on east or west
headings as there is little lead or lag error on these headings. If roll out on north is desired, lead the roll out
by the flight latitude; e.g. 030 (left turn) or 330 (right turn) if at 30° latitude. If roll out on south is desired,
lag the roll out by the flight latitude; e.g. 210 (right turn) or 150 (left turn) if at 30° latitude. Correct as
necessary after wings level with the wet compass stabilized using the steps discussed above.
Environmental requirements normally preclude securing the air conditioner for training purposes. When
requested, cardinal-heading calls shall be made by the IP in a turn, except the rollout heading. Students
should time the entire turn and update the turn progress as cardinal headings are called. Level heading calls
will be made by the IP using his RMI with the air conditioner simulated off. Calls will be rounded to the
nearest 5° mark. Remember, the magnetic compass tends to oscillate. Maintaining headings within + 5°
may be very difficult in an actual emergency.
Partial Panel Oscar Pattern. The partial panel Oscar pattern is the same as full panel except for scan.
Since turns are executed without reference to a compass indicator, and the wet compass is unreliable except
in straight and level, unaccelerated flight, all turns will be timed turns. Primary partial panel scan
instruments are airspeed, altimeter, and turn needle. When airspeed is a constant, it should be used as the
BASIC INSTRUMENTS STAGE