JOINT ADVANCED MULTI-ENGINE T-44A
CHAPTER 3. NIGHT FAMILIARIZATION STAGE (NFAM)
Introduction. Night familiarization introduces the student to multi-engine flight at night. Emphasis is
placed on lighting techniques, operations in the touch and go pattern, and scan. VFR flying at night is
similar to daylight operations with the exception of reduced visual references and depth perception.
Increased reliance must be placed on the gauges and a combination visual/instrument scan utilized.
The aircraft must be equipped for night operations. Ensure you have a flashlight prior to the brief. Utilize
a clear lens when conducting preflight inspections. Pay particular attention to frost or ice accumulations,
which are difficult to detect at night.
If possible, allow your eyes to become night-adapted prior to flight. Avoid bright sunlight (i.e., the beach),
eat well, and get plenty of rest.
Most of the flight procedures for the night familiarization stage are the same as the day FAMs. There are a
few differences and additions listed below.
Aircraft Lighting. Aircraft and cockpit lighting must be set correctly to achieve optimum efficiency and
decrease inherent hazards associated with night flying. Consider the following:
During start, the CP or OBS uses a flashlight to provide extra illumination of the gauges (especially
ITT), as panel lights may dim significantly when the starter is energized.
Display position lights during the period from 30 minutes before official sunset until 30 minutes
after official sunrise, or at any time when prevailing visibility, as seen from the cockpit, is less than
three statute miles.
Utilize taxi lights for all ground movements during hours of darkness, unless under control of a taxi
director. All lights will remain on during taxi, with the exception of the strobe and landing lights.
Secure the taxi light once under the direction of a lineman.
During transition from dusk to full darkness, dim cockpit lighting gradually in order to enhance
outside visibility. Attempt to maintain both sides of the instrument panel at nearly the same
Bright lights tend to reflect off cockpit side windows, creating false impressions of other aircraft or
lights on the ground. Maintain cockpit lights at minimum intensity required for illumination.
Rotating beacon, strobe, and landing/taxi lights may be distracting and also induce vertigo during
adverse weather conditions. Selected lighting may be secured temporarily if required for safe
Use ice lights on the ground when additional wing illumination is desired, and in-flight to check the
wing/nacelles. Turn the ice lights on when taking the runway for takeoff and secure them during the
Climb Checklist/abbreviated Climb Checklist, or after turning downwind if the checklist is not
When encountering lightning or bright lights, turn cockpit lights to full bright.
When the gear is down, taxi/landing lights on at all times, except in adverse weather when the P has
the option to secure them. Practice night landings without the use of landing/taxi lights are not
Keep a flashlight available for immediate use.
If external lighting is lost, you are solely responsible for traffic separation.
Engine Start. Start procedures are the same as daytime with the exception of lighting. Set cockpit lights
as desired. Turn position lights and rotating beacon on at "lights." Direct the CP to shine his/her flashlight
on the P's fingers extended to indicate the engine to be started. During the start sequence, have the CP or
OBS put the flashlight beam on the engine instruments and pedestal. Keep in mind all lights will dim when
the starter is energized. Be alert for a hot start due to the increased electrical demand from the lights.
NIGHT FAMILIARIZATION STAGE