JOINT ADVANCED MULTI-ENGINE T-44A
NOTE: When flying procedure turns designed in FAA airspace, there is no requirement to wait until you are on a
parallel or intercept heading to begin descent from the procedure turn fix altitude; however, when flying these types
of course reversals in ICAO airspace, this procedure is MANDATORY due to different TERPs criteria. In the
interest of forming good habit patterns, the ICAO method has been adopted by the USN and USAF as procedural.
Executing the Course Reversal Maneuver. At the appropriate time on the outbound leg (one minute for
standardization, unless necessary to adjust for winds), begin the course reversal maneuver. Comply with
the published remain within distance. To begin the reversal maneuver, turn 45° away from the outbound
track toward the maneuvering side. Begin timing upon completion of the 45° turn; time for one minute.
Then begin a 180° turn in the opposite direction from the initial turn to intercept the procedure turn course
Local Corpus controllers may issue the following clearance, "Navy 1G411, cleared for the approach; I
will call your procedure turn (inbound)." Their intent is for us to continue on the outbound radial until
told the restriction is deleted. At that point, commence the initial 45° turn outbound. If you are ever
unsure of a clearance, query the controller.
ICAO and USAF use one minute timing from the start of the 45° turn for categories A and B, and 1
minute 15 seconds from the start of the 45° turn for categories C, D, and E aircraft.
One variation of the 45/180 degrees course reversal is the 80/260 degrees maneuver. The procedures for
flying each maneuver are identical except for the following: to begin the 80/260 degrees reversal
maneuver, make an 80° turn away from the outbound track toward the maneuvering side followed by an
immediate 260° turn in the opposite direction to intercept the inbound course.
(b). Holding Technique. The holding technique is another method you may use to accomplish a
procedure turn course reversal on any approach designed using US TERPs. Enter the procedure turn
according to the holding entry procedures described in section 404 with the following exceptions:
If your heading is within 90° of the outbound procedure turn course, you may use normal lead
points to intercept the procedure turn course outbound. (This includes all of the teardrop entry
sector and most of the parallel entry sector.)
If you are properly aligned and elect a teardrop entry, your teardrop course must be within 30°
of the procedure turn course. Use course guidance if it is available.
If you intercept the procedure turn course outbound, maintain the course for the remainder of
the outbound leg, then turn toward the maneuvering side to reverse course.
Timing. Begin timing once you are outbound abeam the procedure turn fix. If you cannot determine the
abeam position while in the turn, start timing after completing the outbound turn. Adjust the outbound leg
length so you will stay inside the "remain within distance" and at the completion of the outbound leg, turn
to intercept the procedure turn course inbound. A 1½ minute outbound leg is normally sufficient, although
two minutes or even more may be desired in some instances, such as an approach with no FAF or an
approach requiring a large descent on the inbound course.
Descent. Do not descend from the procedure turn fix altitude (published or assigned) until you are abeam
the procedure turn fix heading outbound. If you cannot determine when you are abeam, start your descent
after completing the outbound turn. Do not descend from the procedure turn completion altitude until you
are established on the inbound segment of the approach.
Teardrop Techniques. The advantage of the teardrop is that you can proceed outbound using course
guidance (if available) to achieve the proper offset from the procedure turn course so one continuous turn
will establish you inbound. The offset required will depend on TAS, rate of turn, and winds. A rule of
thumb to achieve the proper offset from the procedure turn course is a 30° teardrop course works well for a
one minute outbound leg, a 20° teardrop course works well for a two minute outbound leg, and a 10°
teardrop course works well for a three minute outbound leg. Another technique is to use the standard 30°
teardrop course for one minute, then turn to parallel the procedure turn course for the remainder of the
outbound timing or distance desired.
RADIO INSTRUMENTS STAGE