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Flight Management System (FMS) - Global Positioning System (GPS).
A. The Future.
Many of the current radio navigation aids in use today will be slowly phased out in the foreseeable
future. According to the 1999 Federal Radionavigation Plan (FRP), current NAVAIDS such as
TACAN, VOR, NDB and ILS will begin to disappear around the year 2008. The proposed navigation
plan is based on FMS/GPS with a small backup network of enroute TACANs, VORs, and a few ILS
systems at several major airports around the country. The determination will be made at a later date
whether or not to keep the backup network in place or to get rid of all land-based radionavigation aids.
With this in mind, it is imperative we begin to familiarize ourselves with both enroute and terminal
operation of FMS and GPS systems.
B. Study Other Sources.
This section is a brief overview of FMS/GPS procedures and cannot provide by itself the knowledge
required to use GPS for enroute navigation or terminal approach procedures. It is therefore your
responsibility to study and be familiar with the appropriate manuals and regulations concerning the use
of the IEC 9002M FMS installed in the T-44 aircraft. The following sources provide additional
information: the FMS/GPS computer courseware, IEC Model 9002M FMS Operator's Manual,
NATOPS Flight Manual, AIM, and AFMAN 11-217 V2. GPS training will occur in both the
simulator and the airplane to an "introduce" level. Additional opportunities to use the GPS occur
during cross-country flights.
C. Navigation Database.
Navigation databases supporting GPS equipment certified for enroute and terminal operations contain,
as a minimum, all of the airports, VORs, VORTACs, NDBs, and all named waypoints and
intersections shown on enroute and terminal area charts, SIDs, and STARs. In the terminal area, the
database includes waypoints for SIDs and STARs as well as other flight operations from the beginning
of a departure to the enroute structure or from an enroute fix to the beginning of an approach
procedure. All named waypoints are identified with a five-letter alpha character name provided by the
National Flight Data Center (NFDC). Waypoints unnamed by the NFDC, such as a DME fix, are
assigned a five-letter alphanumeric coded name in the database (as an example, D234T - This coded
waypoint represents a point located on the 234 radial of XYZ VORTAC at 20 nm. The letter T is the
twentieth letter of the alphabet and is used to indicate a distance of 20 nm.) The navigation database in
use in the IEC 9002M FMS is the Jeppesen NavData Database.
D. GPS Approaches.
There are two types of GPS approaches: "stand-alone" and "overlay" approaches.
GPS "Stand-Alone" Approaches. GPS "stand-alone" approaches are constructed specifically for use
by GPS and do not have a traditional underlying procedure. GPS stand-alone approaches are identified
by the absence of other navaids in the approach title; for example, GPS RWY 35. Current "stand-
alone" approaches will be renamed over time as RNAV approaches so that different types of FMS
systems can be legally used to fly the approach (not just GPS-based systems); for example, RNAV
RWY 35. Straight-In Minimums on current GPS charts correspond to the LNAV Minima on RNAV
GPS "Overlay" Approaches. GPS "overlay" approaches permit pilots to use GPS avionics under IFR
to fly existing instrument approach procedures. Most overlay approaches are at civil fields and can be
identified in two ways.
GPS Not in the Title. Some approaches (typically VORs and NDBs) do not have GPS in the title, yet
they are coded into the GPS database and are retrievable; these approaches, therefore, qualify as GPS
overlay approaches. For example, if your equipment allows you to retrieve and arm an approach
named "VOR RWY 35," then the VOR RWY 35 is an overlay approach.
"Or GPS" in the Title. If the approach has the phrase "or GPS" in the title, then it is a GPS overlay
approach; for example, VOR or GPS RWY 12.

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