JOINT ADVANCED MULTI-ENGINE T-44A
C. Holding Corrections.
Timing Adjustments. The standard no-wind length of the inbound legs of the holding pattern is one minute
when holding at or below 14,000' MSL and 1½ minutes when holding above 14,000' MSL. Begin
outbound timing when over or abeam the fix. If you cannot determine the abeam position, start timing
when wings level outbound. Begin inbound timing when wings level inbound. On the initial outbound leg,
do not exceed the appropriate time for the altitude unless compensating for a known wind. Adjust
subsequent outbound legs as necessary to meet the required inbound time. ATC expects pilots to fly the
complete holding pattern as published. Therefore, do not shorten the holding pattern without clearance
from ATC. If you receive a clearance specifying the time to depart a holding pattern, adjust the pattern
within the limits of the established holding procedure to depart at the time specified.
Drift Corrections. Compensate for wind effect primarily by drift correction on the inbound and outbound
legs. This is called the triple drift technique (see figure 405-2). When inbound, use course guidance and
note the drift correction required to track the holding course. When outbound, triple the inbound drift
correction; e.g., if correcting left by 8° when inbound, correct right by 24° when outbound. We triple the
drift correction during the first minute of the outbound leg because no drift correction is made during either
of the one-minute turns (use "single" drift for the remaining time or distance outbound if necessary). A
helpful technique is to set the heading bug to your outbound drift-kill heading while flying the inbound leg.
Make adjustments as necessary on each subsequent pattern.
30° OF BANK
30° DEGREES OF BANK
Figure 404-3. Triple Drift.
NOTE: During training at VT-31, unless significant wind conditions exist, the first turn in holding shall be the
entry leg, followed by the no-wind leg, and finally the wind correction leg. If deviating from this procedure, advise
the IP of your intentions.
D. Arrival at Initial Approach Fix (IAF).
If arriving at your clearance limit IAF without clearance for the approach or specific holding
instructions, hold as depicted on the approach plate at the assigned altitude and obtain an EFC
time. If a specific holding pattern is not depicted, hold on the procedure turn side of the approach
In the event of loss of two-way communications enroute, upon arrival at the IAF without clearance
for the approach, hold as previously instructed, as depicted, or on the procedure turn side of the
approach course. Commence the approach at the EFC time (if received) or ETA as calculated
from the filed or amended (with ATC) ETE. Choice of approach is at pilot's discretion.
In the event of loss of two-way communications while in holding, commence the approach at the
RADIO INSTRUMENTS STAGE