JOINT ADVANCED MULTI-ENGINE T-44A
expect further clearance (EFC). If not received, request an EFC prior to accepting a holding clearance.
When an aircraft is three minutes or less from a clearance limit and a clearance beyond the fix has not been
received, the pilot is expected to start a speed reduction so the aircraft will cross the fix at holding airspeed.
Maximum holding airspeeds are specified in the AIM. If holding instructions have not been received upon
arrival at the fix, hold as published or in a standard pattern on the inbound course to the fix and request
further clearance (in accordance with procedures in FLIP). For two-way radio failure holding procedures,
refer to the Flight Information Handbook.
Technique for Copying Holding Instructions. Reference Figure 404-1.
Draw an arrow from the specified direction of holding.
The head of the arrow is the fix; fly the inbound course to the head.
Draw or visualize the remainder of the pattern by the instructions given.
Figure 404-1. Copying Holding Instructions.
B. Holding Pattern Entry.
Holding pattern entry is as simple as crossing the holding fix, turning outbound, and remaining within the
holding airspace. The following is a typical sequence of events:
Receive the ATC holding clearance and copy the instructions.
Proceed direct to the holding fix (or as cleared) at the assigned altitude.
Determine the direction of the entry turn and adjust speed to cross the fix at 150 KIAS.
Cross the holding fix and execute the "Six T's".
Time. Note the time and compare it to the EFC.
Turn. Turn to the appropriate outbound heading using the parallel, teardrop, or direct entry as
described below. Apply a correction if compensating for known wind.
RADIO INSTRUMENTS STAGE