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Be aware of field elevation and corresponding altitude checkpoints for a VFR pattern. Airspeed and
configuration point is at pilot's discretion. The landing checklist should be complete before turning base
and must be complete no later than the 90 position.
Comply with straight-out or 45 left turn when departing and state intentions. Call when clear of the
Closing VFR Flight Plan.
It is imperative your flight plan be closed after landing. Contact FSS by phone immediately after landing at
a civil field. Most civil towers do not automatically close VFR flight plans. Request Ground close your
flight plan if arriving at a military field. Failure to cancel your flight plan within 30 minutes after your
ETA will result in initiation of search and rescue procedures.
Emergencies and Malfunctions. Malfunctions encountered on VNAV training flights are generally
handled in the same manner as taught in FAM and RI. Additional considerations are:
Dual Engine Failure Enroute (Forced Landing).
Perform the appropriate airstart procedure as required. If an airstart is unsuccessful, execute a forced
landing. Land into the wind if feasible. Smoke or blowing dust may provide an indication of local wind.
Pick an area as flat as possible with the least obstructions. It generally is preferable to force land rather
than ditch into a lake or bay. Difficulty may be encountered in egressing a sinking aircraft, especially with
injuries. Before attempting to land on a road, consideration must be given to power/phone lines, vehicular
traffic, and roadside obstructions. Visual acquisition of power lines is extremely difficult. Always look for
poles, which are more visible than lines. Road intersections often have a higher probability of intersecting
power lines than open stretches.
CAUTION: Power lines, phone lines, cables, etc., often span valleys, canyons, bays, and other geographic features.
Never attempt low-level flight through these areas unless familiar with obstructions.
It is particularly important to transmit an emergency position report. If the Mayday was received, a timely
SAR response is ensured. If no report was received, your VFR flight plan insurance policy should pay off.
Radio Failure.
Lost communication on a VFR flight normally is not an emergency. Maintain VMC. Land at a suitable
field and close your flight plan. There usually is no need to squawk 7600 unless the situation is an
emergency, landing at a controlled field, or penetrating other airspace where you desire to "announce" your
arrival. It generally would be wise to land at a suitable uncontrolled field rather than attempting to
penetrate a Class B or other busy terminal area.
Inadvertent IMC.
VFR flight into IMC and subsequent impact with "cumulo granite" is one of the most common cause
factors in civil mishaps. Military pilots and aircraft are instrument certified, so this type of mishap is not as
common, but is a hazard that must not be overlooked.
Transition to instruments, reverse course, and return to visual conditions. If unable to regain VMC, or if
course reversal is ill advised, climb to clear obstructions. The sectional grid maximum elevation figures
provide quick reference. Declare an emergency and request an IFR clearance.

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