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NOTE: The PAC of the lead aircraft must fly using very smooth and slow changes in attitude and power.
Remember any sudden or abrupt movements cannot be anticipated or matched, and an unsafe reduction in
separation may occur. To avoid confusion, the PAC should handle maneuver commands on internal
Wingman (Wing). The primary duty of the Wingman is to maintain position as briefed, or inform
the Lead of any inability to do so. The PAC should acknowledge all commands and frequency changes.
Lead CP (PNAC) Duties. In addition to performing normal CP functions, the PNAC will read and
perform the appropriate checklist when called for by the PAC, keep a scan of engine instruments and fuel
state, scan for traffic, and handle external communications for the flight. This prevents distraction of the
PAC from his/her primary duties of flying smoothly and precisely.
Wing CP (PNAC) Duties. Since it is imperative the PAC of the wing aircraft not be distracted, the
PNAC will:
Read and perform checklists when called for by the PAC.
Keep an instrument scan to maintain awareness of heading, altitude, airspeed, and attitude
(you do not want to follow the Lead into an unusual attitude or stall).
Keep a scan of engine instruments.
Back the PAC up on the power quadrant and controls. Be ready to take action if an "in-
extremis" situation develops.
Aid the Lead in keeping the flight clear of traffic and weather using internal communications.
Back the Lead up on external communications.
Communications. Good communication procedures are a prerequisite for maintaining formation integrity
and are classified as internal or external. Internal communications involve only Lead and Wing. External
communications are between the flight and ATC, other aircraft, etc. The following guidelines apply:
Internal Communications. Hand signals are impractical for large aircraft and those with limited
visibility from the cockpit. Lights and other signals are normally reserved for lost communication and
tactical situations. All signals, commands, and matters of importance will be passed on the assigned discreet
VHF frequency. If only an acknowledgement is required, Wing will respond simply with "Two," vice
"Roger." This avoids confusion with "Rogers" heard over the external frequency. If it becomes necessary
to make any internal communications over the external communication frequency (button 8, 17, etc.) make
only required calls in a professionally brief manner.
External Communications. A flight is considered to be one aircraft for air traffic control purposes.
External communications should be handled by the Lead. For external frequency changes use the
following sequence:
When directed to another frequency, Lead replies, "Roger, Montana 817 and flight, button 4."
Wing switches frequency, then reports "Two's up button 4" on internal communications.
Hang With Me. It is difficult to transmit/receive maneuver commands on the internal frequency
when the external frequency is a busy ATC frequency. In these situations, the Lead can pass "Hang with
me" and discontinue maneuver commands.
Comms Conflict Resolution. In the event of an apparent breakdown in external communication or
a missed frequency change, resolve confusion on internal communications if possible. If not, the flight
should return to the last good frequency to regain communications.
Formation Emergency Procedures. Following is a list of probable unsafe situations/emergencies and
appropriate procedures:
Lost sight. Occurs any time Wing loses sight of Lead during VMC operations and plans to rejoin.

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