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seven right."
Begin Side-step. Pilots will not begin the side-step maneuver until past the FAF with the side-step
runway or side-step runway environment in sight. The side-step MDA will be maintained until
reaching the point at which a normal descent to land on the side-step runway can be started.
Lose Visual. As in a circling approach, if you lose visual reference during the maneuver, follow the missed
approach specified for the approach procedure just flown, unless otherwise directed. An initial climbing
turn toward the landing runway will ensure the aircraft remains within the obstruction clearance area.
C. Circling.
General Procedures. Circling to land is a visual flight maneuver. When the instrument approach is
completed, it is used to align the aircraft with the landing runway. Circle at 120 KIAS in the T-44
during normal and single engine situations. Circling may require maneuvers at low altitude, at low
airspeed, and in marginal weather conditions. Pilots must use sound judgement, have an in-depth
knowledge of their capabilities, and fully understand the aircraft performance to determine the exact
circling maneuver. Each landing situation is different because of the variables of ceiling, visibility,
wind direction and velocity, obstructions, final approach course alignment, aircraft performance,
cockpit visibility, and controller instructions. The circling MDA and weather minima to be used are
those for the runway to which the instrument approach is flown. The circling minima listed on
instrument approach procedures apply to non-radar non-precision approaches (LOC, VOR, TACAN,
etc.). Circling procedures and techniques are not compatible with precision approach criteria, and
under normal circumstances, should not be attempted. Since the MAP associated with the precision
approach is determined by the pilot in terms of a decision height and not a specific point along the final
approach course, it becomes difficult to ascertain when to discontinue the approach if visual conditions
are not encountered. Therefore, pilots should not plan to circle from a precision approach.
Instructions. If the controller has a requirement to specify the direction of the circling maneuver in
relation to the airport or runway, the controller will issue instructions in the following manner: "Circle
(direction given as one of eight cardinal compass points) of the airport/runway for a right/left
base/downwind to runway (number)." For example, "Circle west of the airport for a right base to
runway one eight." The pilot should report "commencing circle" when initiating any circling
NOTE: Circling obstruction clearance areas (which provide required obstacle clearance of 300') are determined
by aircraft category; the T-44 is a category B aircraft. Maneuver the aircraft to remain within the circling area (see
figure 408-1). If it is necessary to maneuver at speeds in excess of the upper limit of the speed range authorized for
category B (91-120 KIAS), use the landing minima for category C. When you request circling MDA from the
controller for a circling ASR approach, state your aircraft category.
Descent. After descending to circling minimum descent altitude and when the airport environment is
in sight, determine if the ceiling and visibility are sufficient for performing the circling maneuver. The
airport environment is considered the runways, its lights and markings, taxiways, hangars, and other
buildings associated with the airport. (Since the MDA is a minimum altitude, a higher altitude may be
maintained throughout the maneuver.)
Pattern. Choose the best pattern for the situation. Consider VFR or other flying may be in progress at
the airport. Maneuver the shortest path to the base or downwind leg, as appropriate, considering
existing weather conditions. There is no restriction from passing over the airport or other runways.
Maneuver the aircraft to a position allowing you to keep as much of the airport environment in sight as
possible. Consider making your turn to final into the wind if this maneuvering allows you to also keep
the airport environment in sight. You may make either left or right turns to final unless you are:
Directed by the controlling agency to do otherwise.
Required to do otherwise by restrictions on the approach chart or in the IFR Supplement.
Weather -- High Ceiling/Good Visibility. If weather permits, fly the circling approach at an altitude
higher than the circling MDA, up to normal VFR traffic pattern altitude. This allows the maneuver to
be flown with a more familiar perspective and better visual cues. Do not descend below circling MDA

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