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(1). IFR enroute chart symbols do not indicate whether the field is controlled or uncontrolled, only whether an IAP
is published. On sectional charts, uncontrolled airports are depicted by magenta airport symbols.
(2). A number of uncontrolled airports lie inside Class D airspace. If weather is below VFR, ATC clearance must
be obtained prior to entry.
(3). Taxiing aircraft are not under any control at uncontrolled fields. Advisory calls, in accordance with the AIM,
should be made prior to taxi.
Additional Airspace. You will encounter several other types of airspace during FAM, or later in the
syllabus. As a professional aviator, you must be knowledgeable of all types. It is important to know how
to operate your machine and what to expect from other aircraft.
NOTE: Altitudes, operating times, controlling agencies, locations and frequencies for MOAs, prohibited areas,
restricted areas, etc., can be found on enroute and sectional chart covers.
Class B Airspace. Class B airspace exists around major airports in the United States. It is depicted on
area sectionals and specific Class B sectionals with heavy solid blue bands and on enroute low charts are
shaded blue. They are shaped like an "upside-down wedding cake" and are rarely alike. Due to the heavy
volume of traffic, special pilot and equipment rules are mandated. IFR operations are virtually identical to
any controlled field IFR operations, except the tempo can be hectic. High approach speeds are often
mandated until nearing the FAF. Generally, no special requests (practice approaches, etc.) will be
approved. If visual approaches are in use, extensive holding delays may be encountered if the "visual" is
not accepted. A higher level of expertise is expected and latitude for deviation is small. VFR entry and
departure is often via radar vectors or established VFR route. Absolutely no penetration of Class B
airspace is allowed without ATC clearance. When cleared to enter Class B airspace, aircraft are expected
to follow instructions exactly. Assigned pattern entry speed is often higher than normal. Clearance to
depart Class B airspace must be requested on initial call to Clearance Delivery for VFR departures.
Instrument flight plans automatically clear IFR aircraft out of Class B airspace.
Class C Airspace. Class C airspace is charted on sectionals with heavy hashed magenta bands and on
enroute low charts with blue shading. They are utilized at some busy airports to provide a more orderly
flow of traffic. Mode C is required. Airspace contains a 5 NM radius around the airport center, up to
4000 feet AGL. A second ring of airspace extends outward to 10 NM; however, the base is 1200 feet AGL
rather than the surface. An additional "outer area" extends to 20 NM and is available for radar advisories.
Two-way radio communications must be established with ATC prior to entry within either of the two inner
rings. Communication is required prior to departure, except in some situations when operating from
satellite airports. In those cases, communication with the departure airport tower initially suffices. If
departing an uncontrolled airport, contact ATC as soon as practicable after departure. Participation while
operating in the outer ring is encouraged, but not required. Transponder is required within and above all
Class C areas, up to 10,000 feet MSL.
Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA). TRSAs are utilized around many airports to provide vectoring,
sequencing, and separation for all IFR and participating VFR traffic. Altitudes and shapes vary. They are
charted on sectionals with heavy solid gray bands and listed in the Enroute Supplement. Clearance to enter
a TRSA is not required. VFR participation is not required. If not desired, use the terminology "negative
stage service." Military aircraft are required to use radar service to the maximum extent possible. Contact
approach approximately 25 miles out for service. IFR arrivals will automatically be provided service.
Warning Area. Warning areas are charted on enroute and sectional charts and exist in international
airspace beyond the 3-mile territorial limit such as Seagull training area. They often contain hazardous
operations such as missile launches, high-speed maneuvers, Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) training, etc.
Transit through a warning area cannot be legally prohibited; however, contact the controlling agency prior
to entry (phone or radio) to avoid interrupting exercises or endangering the aircraft.

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