AIR FORCE T-38 TRACK INTERMEDIATES
f. Once the profile is complete, Lead coordinates for area exit with the controlling
agency and starts working the formation in the direction of the next phase of flight, i.e., Duke,
Florala, or Whiting. Lead will command, "Knights, Fence-out, Ops check."
The responsibilities of each flight member are the same as Primary Form, but it is incumbent
on Lead to keep the profile moving and not leave any doubt in Wing's mind what is going on in
the formation. As Lead, do not just drone on and leave Two hanging out there for you to
command a rejoin of some sort; have the sortie sufficiently planned so that area work "flows."
Droning is acceptable if you have to work back to the center of the area to resume the profile, but
barring any unforeseen circumstances, all maneuvers should come one right after the other.
ECHELON TURN/LOST WINGMAN
Refer to previous chapter.
Wingwork is a series of "wingovers" in Fingertip Formation. Lead uses no more than 90
degrees of bank, no more than 200 knots at the bottom and no less than 100 knots at the top of
any leaf. Two maintains Fingertip throughout the entire sequence. The wingovers Lead will
execute are similar to Primary PA wingovers, except that you will not reference points on the
ground during the maneuver. Wingovers during wingwork emphasize lead parameters for
airspeeds and bank angles and area maintenance. Lead will fly wingwork exactly the way it was
taught in the T-38 APA ride, but now someone is on the wing. Refer to the Wingwork Demo of
the T-38 APA ride as a refresher. Wing's job is simply to maintain position. Keys to success in
wingwork is for Lead to telegraph when wingwork begins by slowly letting the nose fall to
accelerate to 190 to 200 knots, and being smooth with pulls in the vertical, and slow and smooth
with roll rates. Keys to success for Wing are to be aggressive about maintaining position and
using power and vertical maneuvering appropriately to maintain or re-attain position.
Before initiating wingwork, Lead should attain a suitable energy level so that wing can be
trimmed and ready for maneuvering at the entry airspeed. Lead will normally set 700-750 ft-lbs.
If you wish to build energy during wingwork, use a higher torque setting. If you wish to lose
energy, set torque at a lower level. However, if more than 750 ft-lbs is used, it may be
impossible for Wing to stay in position during turns away at steep bank angles.
Lead begins by letting the nose fall to accelerate to 190-200 knots. With airspeed, Lead should
pull up to about 25-30 degrees nose high and start his roll (Lead should make his first turn into
Two as a warmup. Do not use 90 degrees on the first leaf, 70 to 80 degrees is a good warmup).
Wingwork usually consists of four pulls per wing, four on one wing, Crossunder, four on the
other. It is the Leader's responsibility to monitor the Wingman and to pick turn directions
commensurate with Two's position; if Two is behind at the pullup, do not command a turn away.
Lead should not slow below 100 KIAS; this ensures Wing will have sufficient control
effectiveness to maintain position. Additionally, airspeeds in excess of 200 KIAS will rapidly
deplete energy and should be avoided. Always maneuver in a smooth and predictable manner to
provide a stable platform for the Wingman. For turns away, Lead should show the turn away by
beginning the turn slightly earlier than the turn into, then roll smoothly to 90 degrees of bank.
6-2 T-38 FORMATION AREA WORK