T-34C PRIMARY FORMATION FLIGHT TRAINING
maneuver can be performed. However, the Cruise maneuvering profile requires a series of
maneuvers that may deplete energy. As a result, Lead should begin the profile with excess
energy by positioning the formation at the upper end of the altitude block or energy state (8500-
9500 feet MSL). In other words, if you start out at 8500 feet with 700-750 ft-lbs and maintain
proper airspeed for any energy-losing maneuver, you will lose altitude by the completion of the
maneuver. Energy management is crucial for smooth flow of the planned maneuvers. Below is
a list of cruise formation maneuvers with respective energy planning considerations.
Breakup and Rendezvous (energy neutral)
Cruise Maneuvering (energy loser)
Tail Chase (energy loser)
Lead should manage the energy state to avoid climbing between maneuvers to regain energy.
Lead should also strive to set a good energy state prior to passing the Lead. If the lead change
occurs at a low energy state, the new Lead will have to waste time climbing to gain energy
before the profile can begin.
804. KNOCK-IT-OFF (KIO) / TERMINATE PROCEDURES
Knock-it-off. The term "knock-it-off" can be called by anyone in the formation and is used to
direct all aircraft to cease maneuvering for any unsafe situation. Following a "knock-it-off," all
flight members must vigilantly clear their flightpath and terminate individual maneuvering.
Much like an underrun, the Knock-it-off call can and should be used for safety reasons when the
formation aircraft need to obtain separation. When maneuvering away, the wingman must
simultaneously clear in the direction of turn and notify Lead of the knock-it-off. The wingman
should bank away from Lead at a rate that is commensurate with the hazard. Lead continues to
maneuver in a predictable manner and broadcasts on the radios if he has to change any flight
parameter (i.e., heading and altitude). If calling the Knock-it-off due to a "blind" situation, the
wingman maneuvers away from Lead's last known position or direction of turn, or in any
direction that ensures immediate separation. A power adjustment may help expedite separation.
Lead should call out his flight parameters. Once safe separation is assured, roll out and attempt
to reacquire visual contact with Lead. Advise the leader when visual contact is made. If Lead
has Wing in sight and there is no further hazard, Lead should be directive and tell Dash-2 to roll
out. Once visual contact is reestablished, Lead will direct a rejoin if applicable.
The following list is not all-inclusive, but a Knock-it-off shall be executed in the following
Unable to maintain sight of the leader ("blind").
The Wingman or Lead's presence constitutes a hazard to the formation.
Unable to remain in formation without crossing in front of the leader.
CRUISE MANEUVERING 8-3