T-34C PRIMARY FORMATION FLIGHT TRAINING
Common Errors During Turns Into Wing
Lead fails to clear the area visually prior to commencing a turn.
Lead fails to maintain altitude and constant AOB in the turn.
Lead rolls into or out of turn abruptly or ratchets AOB rolling into or out of turn (i.e., stops
roll at 10 to 20 degrees AOB on the way to 30°).
Lead overshoots the rollout heading or exceeds parade rate of roll.
Wing fails to rotate about Lead's longitudinal axis to maintain proper stepdown.
Wing fails to reduce power slightly to take into account the shorter turn radius effect
discussed above; Wing gets acute as a result and does not detect relative motion.
Wing fails to add sufficient power upon roll out to prevent becoming sucked.
Turns Away From Wing (VMC)
As Lead rolls into bank, Wing will match Lead's rate of roll and rotate about his own
longitudinal axis (Figure 3-16). To help the transition from straight and level to the turn away
picture, match Lead's roll rate while placing the underside of Lead's fuselage on the horizon and
keep the ventral point over the opposite wing aileron cutout.
Once the turn is established, Wing is now on a longer radius of turn than Lead and will have to
use a combination of power, aileron, and a small amount of back stick pressure to maintain
position. In the proper turn away reference, the underside of Lead's fuselage will be on the
horizon and the ventral point is directly over the cutout (Figure 3-17). To make corrections, use
a combination of aileron and backstick pressure to maintain relative closeness and hold the
Lead's fuselage on the horizon. Power should be used to move forward or aft to keep the point
over the cutout. Wing should be close enough to Lead so that when the rollout occurs, Wing will
be in the parade position.
When Lead initiates the rollout, Wing will need to undo the corrections used to establish the turn
away position. Roll out with Lead, matching his roll rate, turning about your own longitudinal
axis at a rate that allows you to maintain proper bearing and reduce power as necessary. As Lead
approaches wings level, focus on reattaching the opposite wing cutout, back to the ventral point.
Make small corrections to reestablish position after the rollout is complete.
3-20 SECTION PARADE