Circling Approach - P-3570083

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T-34C PRIMARY FORMATION FLIGHT TRAINING
CHAPTER SIX
the approach. Wing should waveoff if he does not have at least 1500 feet of spacing from Lead.
Wing should maintain centerline of his half of the runway all the way to touchdown and through
the landing rollout. In some cases, Lead may need to cross in front of Wing to clear the runway.
In this situation, once both aircraft are under control, Wing will transmit "[tac call sign], cleared
to cross" to communicate to Lead that it is safe to cross in front of him.
Circling Approach. Once Lead has the runway environment in sight, he should confirm the
Wingman is visual with the runway. Lead detaches Wing once he commences circling by giving
the "kiss-off" signal or transmitting [tac call sign] "2 detach" to Wing. Lead will fly a no-flap
approach and if required may accelerate slightly to build spacing between aircraft. Lead should
align on final to maintain centerline of his half of the runway all the way to touchdown. After
the kiss-off, Wing should reduce power and establish a minimum of 1500 feet of separation
between aircraft. Wing should use his airspeed differential and maneuvering geometry to obtain
separation during the circle to land. Flaps may be used to aid in gaining separation, but once
1500 feet of separation is obtained, use power as required to maintain this distance. Wing must
take extreme care to avoid a flap overspeed during the final segment of the approach. Wing
should waveoff if he does not have at least 1500 feet of spacing from Lead. On final, Wing
should maintain centerline of his half of the runway all the way to touchdown. In some cases,
Lead may need to cross in front of Wing to clear the runway. In this situation, once both aircraft
are under control, Wing will transmit "[tac call sign], cleared to cross" to communicate to Lead
that it is safe to cross in front of him.
VFR Section Pattern. Once established in the VFR pattern at an airfield (via an instrument or
visual approach), the section may elect to fly multiple patterns to practice section takeoffs and
approaches in a more time efficient manner. These patterns consist of a section takeoff, a
civilian-type "box pattern," and a section approach.
The section enters the VFR pattern from an initial takeoff or a stop-and-go (a full stop landing
followed by realignment of the section on the runway and a section a takeoff). Normal section
takeoff procedures are used and after Wing is established in the parade position, a climbing 90°
turn is made to the crosswind leg. Wing shall use IFR parade references for all turns in the
pattern. Lead will direct a crossunder (above 300 feet AGL) as required to keep Wing on the
outside of the pattern.
Lead levels the formation at a pattern altitude of 1200 feet AGL (unless otherwise directed) and
sets 450 ft-lbs to maintain 120 KIAS. Another 90° turn is made to place the section on the
downwind leg. Desired spacing from the runway on downwind is 1 to 1¼ wingtip distance.
Approaching the upwind numbers, Lead begins the gear extension sequence. Lead will set
650 ft-lbs to maintain 120 KIAS on downwind and confirm both aircraft have "3 down and
locked." At this point, each aircraft shall conduct the Landing Checklist.
SECTION TAKEOFFS AND APPROACHES/IFR OPERATIONS 6-9

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