T-34C PRIMARY FORMATION FLIGHT TRAINING
SHAKE OFF: A visual signal given by the Wingman to indicate he does not understand the
Lead's signal or is not prepared to execute the next maneuver or required action. Shake off is
giving a head shake back and forth indicating "negative."
STACK: A visual checkpoint referring to the trailing edge of either exhaust stack.
STEP: A visual checkpoint referring to the step located on the port side of the fuselage below
the rear cockpit canopy rail.
STEPDOWN: The vertical distance between the Lead and Wing aircraft.
SUCKED: A condition in which the Wingman is incorrectly positioned aft of a designated
TURN CIRCLE: The flight path described by an aircraft in a turn.
TURN RADIUS: The distance between an aircraft's flight path and the center of the turn circle.
TURN RATE: The change in heading expressed in degrees per second at which an aircraft is
TRAIL: A formation position in which Wing is directly behind Lead.
UNDERRUN: A maneuver utilized to allow the Wing aircraft to pass below, behind, and
outside the Lead aircraft's flight path in the event the rendezvous closure rate becomes excessive.
VENTRAL POINT: A visual checkpoint referring to the forward, lowest point of the ventral fin.
VISUAL: A term used to communicate positive visual contact with an aircraft in the formation
(opposite of "Blind").