T-34C OUT-OF-CONTROL FLIGHT
205. STALLS AND DEPARTURE
Stalls can be categorized as either normal or accelerated. A normal stall will occur when the
aircraft is in an unaccelerated flight condition. The primary warnings of an approaching
unaccelerated stall in the T-34C are the rudder shakers, decreasing airspeed, and increasing
AOA. Other indications may include airframe buffet (although somewhat more subtle) and
decreasing control effectiveness. An accelerated stall will occur in an accelerated flight
condition (increased "G's"), such as a Pullup or a Level Turn maneuver. Accelerated stalls
always exhibit more severe characteristics than normal stalls. Normally, a "secondary stall"
which may be experienced while recovering from a normal stall, such as that which is
experienced periodically during the approach turn stall recovery, is actually an accelerated stall.
Such a stall can be caused by the rapid addition of power, increasing the aircraft AOA, inducing
a stall at a higher than normal airspeed, and "G" loading.
If the pilot has no intention of stalling the aircraft and stall warning such as rudder shakers or
airframe buffet are experienced, he must take immediate action to avoid the stall. Actions
reducing AOA, such as relaxing back stick pressure, leveling the wings, centering the ball, and
advancing power smoothly are all appropriate. If such warnings are ignored, subsequent
departure and PSG are inevitable. Misapplication of stall recovery controls may result in PSG or
Incipient Spin. Stall recovery is accomplished in the conventional manner as follows:
Lower nose immediately by reducing back stick pressure.
Use aileron and rudder, as required, to regain straight and level balanced flight.
At the same time, advance power smoothly.
Stall departure is normally recognized by rapid yawing and a nosedown pitching movement,
usually toward the direction of principal rudder input. The departure will be followed by PSG if
the controls are not neutralized promptly. Positively neutralizing the controls will cause the
airplane to recover from the stall departure, but may result in an ensuing unusual attitude from
which the pilot can ultimately recover.
206. POST-STALL GYRATIONS
If control inputs are held after the aircraft departs controlled flight, the aircraft will continue to
oscillate randomly about any or all axes in increasingly nose-low attitudes, which may or may
not develop into a spin. From a 1.0 "G" departure, these oscillations are comparatively mild with
a roll in the direction of applied rudder. With ailerons applied opposite to rudder deflection,
lower nose attitudes and faster roll rates will result. PSG resulting from accelerated departures
are similar, except that initial roll rates will be higher (assuming the same amount of rudder
deflection). In either case, neutralizing the controls will affect rapid recovery, normally in a
nose-low attitude. AOA and airspeed should be checked prior to starting pullout.
2-8 UNUSUAL ATTITUDES AND OUT-OF-CONTROL FLIGHT