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CHAPTER TWO
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES AND OUT-OF-CONTROL FLIGHT
200. INTRODUCTION TO OUT-OF-CONTROL FLIGHT
Intentional OCF maneuvers are conducted to enhance pilot proficiency in OCF recovery. OCF
training shall only be conducted on NATOPS training flights (C9001-C9005), NATOPS check
flights (C9190), OCF semi-annual refresher flights, or as part of an approved curriculum training
flight authorized by unit commanding officers or higher authority. All intentional departures
shall be done with ground reference and clear of clouds. Clearing turns and the Preaerobatic
Checklist shall be accomplished prior to initiating any practice OCF maneuver. All maneuvers
shall be recovered above 5000 feet AGL.
CAUTION
Rapid airspeed buildups may occur during OCF recovery. Take
care when performing maneuvers with the landing gear extended
and the flaps down to avoid overspeeds.
201. OUT-OF-CONTROL FLIGHT
OCF is the seemingly random motion of the airplane about one or more axes. OCF originates
from a stalled condition if the inertial forces on the airplane exceed the aerodynamic control
authority. It is for this reason OCF cannot be halted by any application of controls. In fact,
certain control applications may intensify the motions. OCF usually results from stalls in
accelerated or out-of-balanced flight or from stalls where improper recovery control inputs are
applied. OCF, in general, can be divided into three categories:
1.
PSGs are the random motions of the airplane about one or more axes immediately
following a stall. A PSG can occur at normal flying speed (from an accelerated stall) or at slow
speed following a normal stall. The PSG can be extended through continued application of post-
stall controls or misapplication of stall recovery controls. At normal flying speeds, a PSG will
dissipate kinetic energy so that the aircraft tends to slow to a potential incipient spin condition.
At slow airspeeds, the post-stall condition is accompanied by flight controls ineffective
compared to the inertial forces present. PSGs may be extremely violent and disorienting. The
intuitive response of rapidly applying controls in all axes in an attempt to stop the PSG is
generally ineffective or exacerbates the random motions. PSGs are aggravated by maintenance
of aft stick and rapid cycling of the rudder pedals. A pilot can usually identify a PSG by noting
an uncommanded (and often rapid) aircraft motion about any axis, an immediate feeling of lost
control authority, stalled or near-stalled AOA, random (usually transient) airspeed and random
turn needle deflection.
2.
Incipient Spin is the motion occurring between a PSG and a fully developed spin.
Additionally, the reversal phase of a progressive spin is also an incipient spin. Any stall can
progress to an incipient spin if steps are not taken to recover the aircraft at either the stall or PSG.
An incipient spin is a spin-like motion in which the aerodynamic and inertial forces are not yet in
balance, but where there is sustained, unsteady yaw rotation. As a result, an incipient spin is
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES AND OUT-OF-CONTROL FLIGHT 2-1