T-34C INSTRUMENTS CHG 1
Maintaining a constant heading (other than directly to or from a NAVAID), the tail of the
needle rises and the head falls (assuming nowind conditions).
T34C NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
This section will provide an overview of the navigation equipment installed in the T34C. It is not
within the scope of this manual to address these systems in detail. It is strongly suggested that you
consult the indicated references for specific information.
The T34C is equipped with three navigation systems. The VOR (OMNI) receives its signal
from VOR ground stations operating in the VHF range. The TACAN receives its signal from
TACAN ground stations operating in the UHF range. Often both stations are colocated in
"VORTAC" facilities. The third system is the KLN900 GPS, which receives its signals from
globally positioned satellites and is covered in Chapter Seven.
First you will learn VOR navigation and later be introduced to TACAN; the main difference
being Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) associated with the TACAN allows precise
determination of your position utilizing a single NAVAID. Lastly, you will be introduced to
VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE (VOR)
Reference: T34C NATOPS, Chapter 19, VOR Receiver (VIR30A); NIFM Part V, "VHF
Omnidirectional Range (VOR);" AIM Chapter 1, Section 1, "VHF Omnidirectional Range."
The VOR is a navigation system which operates in the VHF frequency range (108.00 to 117.95
MHz). VOR course information is not affected by lightning or other types of severe weather;
however, reception is limited by line of sight. Normal reception range is 4045 NM at 1000 feet
AGL and increases with altitude. VOR provides azimuth information only, with accuracy being
generally plus or minus 1º.
Most VORs are equipped for voice transmission on the VOR frequency. The only positive
method of identifying a VOR is by its Morse Code identification or the recorded automatic voice
Example: digitized/recorded voice speaking "Crestview VOR" alternating with Morse Code
Never rely solely on identification from voice transmissions by the Flight Service Station (FSS)
or approach control facility, because many FSS remotely operate several omni ranges.
The T34C is equipped with the VIR30A VOR receiver. This receiver is located in the
avionics compartment. It is controlled by a receiver control box which is part of the
multifunction panel in each cockpit (Figure 43). VOR information is displayed on the VOR
needle (single bar) of the RMI (Figure 46).
4-4 INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INSTRUMENTS