Primary NAVAID/Radial: The NAVAID and radial from that NAVAID upon
which the holding pattern is oriented.
Secondary NAVAID/Radial: The NAVAID and radial from that NAVAID
which defines the holding fix (intersection) on the primary radial. (Figure 72)
Using normal Intersection procedures identify STUDY intersection. If you are flying
direct PointtoPoint to the intersection you will probably intercept the primary or
secondary radial prior to arriving at the intersection (unless your tracking was perfect).
In either case, the Holding Entry procedures are dependent upon the reciprocal of the
holding course at the time you cross the fix.
Figure 72 Study Intersection
When holding at a VOR station the reciprocal of the holding course is always the same as
the radial. At an intersection, however, this will only be true when the holding pattern is
oriented so that the inbound leg is toward the station. Holding is always inbound to a fix.
When that fix is an intersection, the inbound holding course could possibly be away from
the station. Inbound to the holding fix does not necessarily mean inbound to the
Figure 72 depicts STUDY intersection, which is located at the crossing point of V200 (TUR 90ºR)
and V100 (WHI 360ºR). There are four possible holding patterns at STUDY located along V200.
In patterns A and B, the holding course 90º and the holding radial are the same. There are four
additional holding patterns, which could be located at STUDY. They would be North and South of
STUDY on V100.
Procedure (TWO NAV RECEIVERS)
Intersection Holding can be accomplished with one or two navigation receivers (VOR
and TACAN). This discussion will refer to a specific example in which two NAV
receivers are used. (Figure 7-3)
7-4 INSTRUMENT NAVIGATION