As stated in the section concerning trim, the ball is centered using peripheral vision during any
transition on the gyro. Thus, consider the ball as part of the attitude scan during the initial
transition. From then on, it is scanned with the turn needle.
Straight and Level Flight
To maintain straight and level flight, we shall be most concerned with those instruments that will
aid us in maintaining constantheading, constantaltitude flight. Our primary attitude instrument
for both nose and wing position is the attitude gyro, which gives us the most direct indication of
our attitude in relation to the horizon. Since the gyro suffers from precessional errors, it is of
extreme importance to use other attitude instruments as crosschecks for our gyro. Since straight
and level flight maintains a constant heading, we shall utilize the RMI as a wing position
crosscheck instrument; in other words, any deviation from a constant heading on the RMI will
indicate our wings are not in the level attitude, provided the aircraft is in balanced flight.
Our nose position crosscheck in straight and level flight consists of using the altimeter in
conjunction with the verticalspeed indicator. Any change in constantaltitude flight will be
indicated initially by a movement on the altimeter and verticalspeed indicator. Our
performance instrument will be the airspeed indicator, showing us the result of our attitude plus
the power applied. (Additional scan instruments are the balance ball for balanced flight and the
The level turn scan is similar to the straight and level scan in that the nose attitude is maintained on
the attitude gyro and crosschecked with the altimeter and verticalspeed indicator. Wing attitude is
maintained on the gyro for constant AOB turns.
If a constantrate turn is desired, the turn needle is utilized as the wing position crosscheck.
Performance scan in a constantrate turn also includes the RMI and clock to check the rate of
turn. The ball is a peripheral attitude instrument when rolling into the turn on the gyro and then
scanned with the turn needle throughout the maneuver.
Straight Climbs and Descents
During climbs and descents on a constant heading, our primary indicator for nose and wing
position is the attitude gyro. The wing position is crosschecked on the RMI and the nose attitude
is crosschecked on the airspeed indicator. During constantrate climbs and descents, we also
check the performance with the altimeter and clock. The verticalspeed indicator may be used to
crosscheck the rate of climb or descent. The additional scan includes the turn needle and balance
2-6 BASIC INSTRUMENTS GENERAL PROCEDURES