There are several combinations of the previously described means
of identifying intersections, which can be employed, depending on
NAVAID types, route structure, and navigation receiver status.
Failure to determine ETA prior to the intersection.
Twisting a course in the IND350 when greater than 10º from the intersection radial.
Not recognizing the aircraft is already past the intersection. (Remember, the tail of
the needle rises.)
Failure to fly the drift corrected heading to stay on course while switching to the
Twisting in the radial instead of the course when turning at an intersection. This will
create a reverse sensing situation after the turn.
Failure to select the proper position on the VOR/TACAN switch.
Reference: NIFM Part V; FLIP GP Chapter 5; AIM Chapter 5 "Holding."
Amplification Holding is a predetermined maneuver which keeps aircraft within a
specified airspace while awaiting further clearance from Air Traffic Control. It may be
accomplished at an intersection or at a NAVAID. When cleared to hold by ATC, a specified
airspace oriented about the holding fix has been reserved, which is clear of other air traffic. The
extent of the cleared airspace is defined by the maximum holding airspeed as listed in the FLIP
GP and Aeronautical Information Manual. You are expected to cross the holding fix at or below
maximum holding airspeed by initiating a speed reduction when three minutes or less from the
holding fix. Maximum airspeed for all aircraft is as follows:
06000 feet MSL
600114,000 feet MSL
Above 14,000 feet MSL
310 KIAS (unless otherwise depicted)
230 KIAS (unless otherwise depicted)
Some holding patterns are restricted to 210 KIAS or 175 KIAS.
These Holding Patterns are depicted with an icon indicating the
maximum holding speed.
6-32 RADIO INSTRUMENT FLIGHT PROCEDURES