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CHAPTER TWO
BASIC INSTRUMENTS GENERAL PROCEDURES
200.
INTRODUCTION
This section discusses and explains the fundamental flight maneuvers upon which all basic
instrument flying tasks and techniques are based. In learning to fly instruments, as in any
learning process, the fundamentals must be mastered before more coordinated maneuvers can be
learned.
201.
INSTRUMENT SCAN
Good instrument flight is attained by smooth "attitude control." Attitude control is attained by
visualizing and setting a desired power and attitude combination while studying and controlling
the miniature aircraft attitude on the attitude gyro, trimming the new attitude, and confirming this
attitude by scanning attitude crosscheck instruments. Once attitude control is mastered, setting
power and attitude to achieve exact performance attains professional instrument flight.
1.
Setting an Attitude
a.
All attitude changes must be accomplished on the attitude gyro. This means if a new
attitude is desired, an aviator must "go" completely to the gyro and "set" the attitude,
then remain focused on the gyro long enough to trim the new attitude to ensure that
the aircraft will remain in its new position. The common error is to move the scan too
rapidly to a crosscheck instrument before an attitude is actually "set." As a result of
this scan shift, the gyro (and aircraft) moving while the crosscheck instrument is
being "scanned." As an example, consider rolling out of a turn. An aviator sees his
heading approaching on the RMI, initiates his/her roll on the gyro to wings level, but
his/her eyes leave the gyro before he/she sets wings level in order to check the
heading. As a result, the aircraft continues to roll in the opposite direction and will
not maintain heading; also, the nose probably leaves the desired attitude. Avoid this
frustration by simply following a basic rule. Set the new attitude by stopping the
wings and nose in the desired positions with the stick, trimming if necessary. After
stabilizing the gyro, then crosscheck other instruments. Remember, all the other
instruments "lag" behind gyro movement, so use that "lag" time to your advantage for
setting the gyro attitude.
b.
The P.A.T. PRINCIPLE. In most transitions from level flight, we will have to reset
power, attitude and retrim for our new attitude. The mechanics of transitions will be
performed in a specific sequence:
i.
POWER
ii.
ATTITUDE
iii.
TRIM
BASIC INSTRUMENTS GENERAL PROCEDURES 2-1


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