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CHAPTER SEVEN
T-34C INSTRUMENTS
h.
Once an intercept is established inbound to the holding fix prepare to identify the
intersection. Just like you did in step 4, tune the secondary NAVAID, set the
VOR/TACAN switch, and set the CDI to a course to identify the intersection.
i.
At the intersection, commence the CORRECTION ORBIT. On the outbound leg
apply your predetermined wind corrections, retune and identify the primary NAVAID
and twist in the holding course into the CDI. Remember to take into account the
greater radial spacing when operating farther away from the station.
j.
Repeat Steps f - i for all subsequent CORRECTION ORBITS.
k.
Continue to monitor the time. Be sure to update the EFC time five minutes prior to the
EFC time.
l.
When cleared out of Intersection Holding, you may turn direct to the intersection and
begin an immediate acceleration to cruise speed.
4.
Common Errors
a.
Confusing the holding course and holding radial.
b.
Using insufficient wind corrections and too shallow an intercept.
c.
Waiting an excessive amount of time after turning inbound before setting up your
NAVAIDS to identify the intersection.
d.
Leading the turn like normal turns at an intersection. For Intersection Holding ­ you
must wait for the CDI to center before entering the holding pattern.
e.
Becoming disoriented in the holding pattern.
f.
Not obtaining an EFC time prior to entering the holding pattern.
704.
AIRPORT SURVEILLANCE APPROACH (ASR APPROACH)
Reference: AIM Chapter 5, Section 4, "Arrival Procedures"; NIFM Chapter 24, "Surveillance
Final Approach."
1.
Amplification ­ A surveillance approach is a non­precision approach in which the
controller provides navigational guidance in azimuth only. The surveillance approach, like the
PAR approach, is a special instrument approach procedure and as such will not be described in
the approach plates. Airport surveillance radar is less precise than precision radar. Surveillance
radar also lacks altitude readout. This accounts for the higher minimums on ASR approaches. It
is a good practice to "back up" any Radar approach with a published non­precision approach if
possible. Procedures prior to the surveillance final are exactly the same as a PAR, except it will
be flown in the Basic Approach Configuration. Refer to the section on PAR for a review of these
procedures.
7-8 INSTRUMENT NAVIGATION


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