The approach and landing at night are the same as in the daytime. Your 90º position and final
checkpoints remain the same. Vary the angle of bank and adjust power as necessary to fly from
the 90º to intercept the landing line with 1200-1500 feet of straightaway, 100-150 feet of actual
altitude, and 85/95 KIAS. Maintain 85/95 KIAS until the landing transition. Do not slow below
80/90 KIAS until commencing the landing transition.
The intended point of landing at night is on runway centerline, 500-1000 feet up the runway
from the green threshold lights. Avoid fixating on the intended point of landing. A waveoff
should be executed if you cannot touch down in the first one-third of the runway or if lined up
extremely right or left of runway centerline.
Initiating the landing transition, smoothly and continuously reduce the PCL to idle and control
your rate of descent with a smooth, continuous flare until touchdown. It is imperative that you
focus on the end of the runway vice directly over the nose. "Spotting the deck" may result in a
hard landing. Remember, at night, peripheral cues are greatly reduced requiring a continuous
After touchdown on the main gear, smoothly lower the nose to the deck. Smoothly apply power
to full forward; following engine spool-up, raise the nose to the takeoff attitude. Make a normal
takeoff by maintaining directional control with rudders and climb out at 90 KIAS FF, 100 KIAS
NF. When safely airborne and 90 KIAS, reset the power, raise the flaps, and maintain 100 KIAS
in the climbing attitude. Make heading corrections as necessary to maintain runway centerline as
you proceed upwind. When the proper interval has been established on the aircraft ahead and
you are cleared downwind by the tower (at controlled fields only), you may begin your
crosswind turn utilizing a maximum of 30º angle of bank. Look both left and right to make sure
that no one is entering the pattern and that you are actually the number one aircraft upwind. If
the preceding aircraft is full-stop, wait until it is 45º behind the wingtip.
Touch-and-go landings may be conducted with or without landing lights at the IP's discretion;
however, students should have the opportunity to practice both types of approaches. Remember,
the external landing gear indicator lights will not be easily visible to the RDO or wheels watch
with the landing lights on.
Due to lack of ground reference points at night, attention should be
given to the effects of crosswinds throughout the landing patterns.
If you take a waveoff for any reason during an approach, execute the normal Waveoff
procedures. Waveoff procedures are the same as during day operation. Maintain 100 KIAS and
climb IAW SOP/Course Rules. Turn downwind with proper interval (or as directed by the
15-2 NIGHT CONTACT FLIGHT PROCEDURES