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T-34C CONTACT
CHAPTER THREE
After learning how the airplane will react when the flight controls are used, the pilot must learn
how to use them properly. Rough and erratic usage of all or any one of the controls will cause
the airplane to react accordingly; therefore, the pilot must form the habit of applying pressures
smoothly and evenly.
The amount of force the airflow exerts on the control surface is governed by the airspeed and the
degree that the surface is moved out of its neutral or streamlined position. Since the airspeed
will not be the same in all maneuvers, the amount of control surface movement is of little
importance. However, it is important that the pilot maneuver the airplane by applying sufficient
control pressures to obtain a desired result, regardless of how far the control surfaces are actually
moved.
The pilot's feet should rest comfortably against the rudder pedals. Both heels should support the
weight of the feet on the cockpit floor with the ball of each foot touching the individual rudder
pedals. The legs and feet should not be tense; they must be relaxed just as when driving an
automobile. The pedals should be adjusted so that the pilot with full throw of the rudder still has
a slight flex in the knee.
When using the rudder pedals, pressure should be applied smoothly and evenly by pressing with
the ball of one foot just as when using the brakes of an automobile. The rudder pedals are
interconnected and act in opposite directions; when pressure is applied to one pedal, pressure on
the other must be relaxed proportionally. When the rudder pedal must be moved significantly,
heavy pressure changes should be made by applying the pressure with the ball of the foot while
the heels slide along the cockpit floor. Remember, the ball of each foot must rest comfortably on
the rudder pedals so that even slight pressure changes can be felt. Care must be taken NOT to
apply any brake pressure inadvertently (i.e., when in the landing pattern).
During flight, it is the pressure the pilot exerts on the control stick and rudder pedals that causes
the airplane to move about its axes. When a control surface is moved out of its streamlined
position (even slightly), the air flowing past it will exert a force against it and will try to return it
to its streamlined position. It is this force that the pilot feels as pressure on the control stick and
the rudder pedals.
302.
SECONDARY FLIGHT CONTROLS - TRIM DEVICES
The secondary flight controls are the trim tabs. They are used for trimming and balancing the
airplane in flight and to reduce the force required of the pilot in actuating the primary flight
control surfaces. These tabs are really small airfoils attached to, or recessed into, the trailing
edge of the primary control surfaces. When an airplane's flight conditions (attitude, power,
airspeed, loading, and configuration) are changed, the control pressures required to maintain the
new flight conditions are affected by the resulting changes in aerodynamic forces. To relieve the
pilot of this tiring effort, the T-34C is equipped with trim tabs with which to trim the airplane for
balanced flight.
A trim tab is a small, adjustable hinged surface, located on the trailing edge of the aileron,
rudder, or elevator control surface. It is used to maintain the flight surfaces in balance in
USE AND EFFECT OF CONTROLS 3-5


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