General. Frequently, during your landing practice, you will have to discontinue an
approach for reasons of safety and execute a waveoff. A waveoff may be initiated by the pilot,
or may be directed by an external source (RDO, wheels watch, waveoff lights (TW-4), flare, IP,
tower, another aircraft, etc.). The reason for an externally directed waveoff may not be apparent
to the pilot, but the waveoff is mandatory unless a greater emergency exists.
Although a landing approach may be aborted at any point in the pattern, a waveoff will usually
be executed during the approach turn, in the straightaway, or during the landing transition. Of
course, the sooner a poor landing condition is recognized and the waveoff executed, the safer it
will be. If at any time your approach does not feel comfortable or you are too close to the
aircraft in front of you, "take it around." You should not wait until the last second to make a
decision. Keep in mind that a waveoff is not an emergency procedure unless it is executed too
late. A pilot who recognizes a poor approach situation (i.e., overshooting the runway) and
executes a proper waveoff well before getting into a dangerous situation (i.e., steep angle of bank
to get back to the runway) is demonstrating maturity and good judgment and will never be
criticized by fellow aviators. Be alert for a waveoff given by wheels watch (shooting a flare or
waving paddles overhead). Once you have initiated a waveoff, do not change your mind and
attempt to land.
Examples of an unsafe approach are unsafe altitude, unsafe airspeed, overshooting approach,
drifting or crabbing prior to touchdown, and high transitions that will lead to a bounced landing.
The sooner a poor landing condition is recognized and the waveoff executed, the safer it will be.
Conflicts in the traffic pattern and insufficient separation during the landing approach are usually
solved by establishing proper interval in the break or upwind prior to the crosswind turn;
however, the following guidelines should be followed.
There should be at least 90º of approach turn between you and the aircraft ahead. If you roll out
in the straightaway before the aircraft has landed, an immediate waveoff shall be initiated. Do
not delay your waveoff in hopes that the situation will correct itself. During operations at
outlying fields where Practice Precautionary Emergency Landing (PPEL), PPEL in the pattern,
and touch-and-go is in progress simultaneously, pilots must be constantly alert for traffic
conflicts. All PPEL traffic at joint-operation fields have the right-of-way over normal touch-and-
As a pilot in the touch-and-go pattern at a field where PPELs are in progress, be prepared to
wave off as early as possible to avoid conflict with PPEL traffic.
Advance PCL to full forward.
Simultaneously level the wings (if conditions permit), and center the ball.
Waveoff shall continue to follow ground track to avoid traffic and
comply with local course rules.
7-30 LANDING PROCEDURES