EMERGENCY LANDING PATTERN (ELP)
1. High Key
2500 feet AGL
¼ WTD abeam
intended point of
aligned with landing
Approx. 2000 feet
Crossing the landing
3. Low Key
Approx. 1200 feet
⅔ WTD abeam
intended point of
600 800 feet
landing line; halfway
between low key and
(*) Gear will be down and flaps up at high and low key for the HAPL/LAPL if conducted to a prepared surface. Flaps will
be lowered no sooner than low key (when the field is made).
(**) For the PPEL, the flaps will be lowered when the field is made but no sooner than low key. If below altitude, get back
on the profile prior to lowering the flaps.
Figure 8-1 ELP
The intended point of landing is within the first onethird of
runway or field (on centerline if applicable).
The most important factor in the ELP is to fly your checkpoints (altitude, airspeed, heading and
position over the ground) (Figure 8-2). This is accomplished through a good VFR scan.
Check outside to reference the aircraft's position. The aircraft's position may be off as a result
of poor planning, imprecise basic airwork, or current wind conditions. Check inside for
airspeed, altitude, heading, and engine instruments. Make all corrections smoothly and
An important consideration when choosing the landing site and direction is the wind
conditions. While landing "into" the wind is an important goal, a larger/longer landing site
should not be sacrificed just to be perfectly aligned with the wind (generally, a headwind
component is the goal). Attempt to set up the ELP to take advantage of headwinds and
maximize landing distance. Lessons learned from T-34C forced landings have emphasized that
once in ground effect, the T-34C will continue to fly (float in ground effect) for a good
distance while the excess energy is being dissipated.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 8-3