Path of outer
Path of fuselage
Path of inner wingtip
Figure 4-6 Overbanking Tendency
When changing from a shallow bank to a moderate bank, the lift of the outside wing is greater
than that of the inside wing. However, in this situation the force created exactly balances the
force of the inherent lateral stability of the airplane, so that at a given speed, no aileron pressure
is required to maintain that bank. However, as the radius decreases further when the bank
progresses from a moderate bank to a steep bank, the lift differential overbalances the lateral
stability, and counteractive (opposite) pressure on the ailerons is necessary to keep the bank from
The pilot's posture while seated in the airplane, particularly during turns, since it will is very
important in all maneuvers, affects the alignment of outside visual references. At the beginning
the student may lean to the side when rolling into the turn in an attempt to remain upright in
relation to the ground rather than "ride" with the airplane. This tendency must be corrected at the
outset if the student is to learn to properly use visual references.
As in all maneuvering, the pilot should form the habit of ensuring that the area towards which a
turn is to be made is clear of other aircraft. If nearby aircraft are not detected before lowering the
wing, it may be too late to avoid a collision.
As soon as the airplane rolls from the wings-level attitude, the nose should also start to move
along the horizon, increasing its rate of travel proportionately as the bank is increased. Any
variation from this will be indicative of the particular control that is being misused. The
following variations provide excellent guides:
If the nose starts to move before the bank starts, rudder is being applied too soon.
If the bank starts before the nose starts turning, or the nose moves in the opposite direction,
the rudder is being used too late.
3. If the nose moves up or down when entering a bank, excessive or insufficient back elevator
pressure is being applied.
FUNDAMENTAL FLIGHT CONCEPTS