aircraft straight down the runway. The degree to which the upwind wing is lowered and
the amount of opposite rudder pressure applied are governed by the amount of drift present.
If there is a strong crosswind, the wing must be lowered further than if a light crosswind is
If the wing-low method is used, the crosswind (aileron into the wind and opposite rudder)
should be maintained throughout the flare, and the touchdown made on the upwind main
wheel. Think of flaring on one wheel.
During gusty or high wind conditions, prompt adjustments must be made in the crosswind
correction to assure that the airplane does not drift as it touches down.
As the aircraft settles onto the runway in a landing attitude, the actual touchdown will be
made on only one of the main wheels. As the forward momentum decreases, the weight of
the aircraft will cause the other main wheel to settle onto the runway.
During gusty or high wind conditions, extreme caution should be used to make certain that
the aircraft is not drifting and/or crabbing. A crab or drift is a condition that occurs when a
touchdown is executed while the longitudinal axis of the aircraft is not aligned with the
landing track. Since the aircraft is actually traveling sideways in relation to the ground, it
will be given a tipping moment in the direction that the aircraft is traveling. Touchdown in
a crab or drift will also cause the aircraft to turn away from the intended landing path. This
turn is called a swerve. Any time a swerve develops, centrifugal force will be created
commensurate to the speed of the swerve. It is dangerous to land in a crab or drift because
control of the aircraft may be lost momentarily, thus exposing you to other adverse landing
factors. Maintain the crosswind correction to minimize the weather vaning tendencies of
the aircraft and lower the nose gently onto the runway. Use rudder as necessary to
maintain directional control.
Particularly during the landing roll, special attention must be given to maintaining
directional control with rudders while maintaining the crosswind aileron inputs. While the
airplane is decelerating during the landing roll, more and more aileron must be applied to
keep the upwind wing from rising. Since the airplane is slowing down, there is less airflow
around the ailerons and they become less effective. At the same time, the relative wind is
becoming more of a crosswind and exerting a greater lifting force on the upwind wing.
Consequently, when the airplane is coming to a stop the aileron control must be held fully
towards the wind.
When making a touch-and-go landing hold the nosewheel on the deck and apply upwind
aileron to maintain a wings-level attitude. Initiate positive (firm) rotation when flying
speed is reached to avoid sideslipping. Initial drift correction is made by turning into the
wind with a shallow bank to counteract drift, then rolling wings-level. On the climbout, it
will be necessary to "crab" the aircraft into the wind to maintain runway heading. The crab
must also be used on the downwind parallel the runway.
7-28 LANDING PROCEDURES