Climbing Turns

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CHAPTER FOUR
T-34C CONTACT
During the climb, lift will increase with the flight path, so that it is not directly opposing gravity
to support the airplane's weight.  With the flight path inclined, the lift is partially acting
rearward.
This adverse or retarding lift is termed induced drag. This adds to the total drag. Since weight is
always acting perpendicular to the earth's surface and drag is acting in a direction opposite to the
airplane's flight path during a climb, it is necessary for thrust to offset both drag and gravity.
As the aircraft continues to climb at a constant angle of attack, torque will drop off as air density
decreases. The volume of air entering the induction system gradually decreases, resulting in a
pressure reduction within the combustion chamber. Consequently, power decreases. The PCL
must be continually advanced to maintain constant power.
412.
CLIMBING TURNS
In developing skills to perform climbing turns, the following factors should be considered:
1.
With a constant power setting, the same pitch attitude and airspeed cannot be maintained in
a bank as in a straight climb, due to the decrease in effective lift during a turn.
2.
The degree of bank should be neither too steep nor too shallow. Too steep a bank
intensifies the effect mentioned above. If too shallow, the angle of bank may be difficult to
maintain because of the inherent stability of the airplane.
3.
A constant airspeed, a constant rate of turn, and a constant angle of bank must be stressed.
The coordination of all controls is likewise a primary factor to be stressed and developed.
4.
The airplane will have a greater tendency towards nose-heaviness than in normal straight
climb, due to the decrease in effective lift that is the case in all turns.
5.  As in all maneuvers, attention should be diverted from the airplane's nose and divided
among all references equally.
All of the factors that affect the airplane during level (constant altitude) turns will affect it during
climbing turns or any other turning maneuver. It will be noted that because of the low airspeed,
aileron drag (adverse yaw) will have a more prominent effect than it did in straight-and-level
flight and more rudder pressure will have to be blended with aileron pressure to keep the airplane
in coordinated flight during changes in bank angle. Additional elevator deflection and trim will
also have to be used to compensate for centrifugal force and loss of vertical lift, and to keep the
pitch attitude constant.
During climbing turns, the loss of vertical lift becomes greater as the angle of bank is increased,
so shallow turns must be used to maintain a sufficient rate of climb. If a medium or steep banked
turn is used, the airplane will not climb sufficiently.
413.
DESCENDING FLIGHT
When the power is reduced during straight and level flight, the thrust needed to balance the
airplane's drag is no longer adequate. Due to the unbalanced condition, the drag causes a
momentary reduction in airspeed. This decrease in speed, in turn, results in a corresponding
4-18
FUNDAMENTAL FLIGHT CONCEPTS

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