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CHAPTER ONE
INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES WORKBOOK
mega (M) for 1,000,000 Hz. For example, a frequency of 225,900,000 Hz would be written
225.9 MHz.
The four main frequency ranges used with air navigation and communication radios are:
1.
Low Frequency/Medium Frequency (LF/MF)
2.
High Frequency (HF) (not discussed)
3.
Very High Frequency (VHF)
4.
Ultra High Frequency (UHF)
Military air navigation and communication radios operate in specific bands within each
frequency range as indicated below:
1.
LF/MF 100 to 1750 (kHz)
2.
HF 2.0 to 29.999 (MHz) (not discussed)
3.
VHF 108.00 to 136.975 (MHz)
Military aircraft use LF/MF radios, which are more commonly known as automatic direction
finders (ADFs), primarily as a backup navigational radio. Aircraft LF/MF radios are similar to
automobile radios; they are only capable of receiving. An ADF receiver is used to receive
bearing information from ground transmitters called non-directional beacons (NDBs). These
facilities operate in the 190 to 535 KHz band and transmit a continuous three-letter Morse code
identifier. Those NDBs which have a class code of AB (listed in IFR Supplement) transmit
continuous automatic transcribed weather broadcasts in addition to the three-letter identifier. An
ADF receiver can also receive commercial broadcasting stations operating in the AM frequency
band from 540 to 1650 kHz. The ADF is very susceptible to atmospheric disturbances and is
severely limited in areas of thunderstorms or other severe weather. TACAN and VOR, however,
are not greatly affected by weather. The T-34C is one of the few military aircraft that has no
ADF installed.
The VHF frequency band of 108.00 to 136.975 MHz serves the purposes of air navigation and
communication. The complete frequency band is used by civilian aircraft for direct pilot to
controller two way VHF voice communications.
103. VOR PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
The lower half of the VHF band is used in the VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR) air
navigation system; the frequency range is from 108.00 to 117.95 MHz. The present system of
federal low altitude airways in the United States is based on a network of VOR stations.
1-4 INTRODUCTION TO AIRBORNE NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATIONS
EQUIPMENT AND PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION


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