INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES WORKBOOK
On every IFR flight a Flight Information Handbook (FIH) should be carried aboard the aircraft
Check the "Table of Contents" on the front cover for emergency and two-way radio failure
procedures. These procedures should be reviewed regularly and are contained in the FIH for
ready use when needed in an actual two-way radio failure emergency.
If you encounter a distress or urgency condition, you can obtain assistance by contacting the
ATC facility in whose area of responsibility the aircraft is operating by simply stating the nature
of the difficulty, your intentions, and assistance desired.
Minimum fuel is an advisory term indicating that an aircraft's fuel supply has reached a state in
which, upon reaching the destination, the aircraft can accept little or no delay. This condition is
not an emergency situation but merely indicates that an emergency situation is possible should
any undue delay occur. Emergency fuel indicates that you need assistance, such as priority
handling, and should be handled as discussed later in this lesson.
Advising ATC of Aircraft Emergencies
You should take the following action to obtain assistance if you are in any distress or urgency
1. If under positive radar control (or in an environment that requires a specific squawk)
maintain codes as previously set.
In situations other than (1) above: Switch to Mode 3/A, code 7700.
Transmit a distress or urgency message consisting of as many as necessary of the following
elements, preferably in the order listed:
1. If distress, MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY; if urgency, PAN-PAN, PAN-PAN, PAN-
Name of station addressed
Aircraft identification and type
Nature of distress or urgency
Pilot's intention (bailout, ditching, crash landing, etc.) and request (fix, steer, escort, etc.)
INTRODUCTION TO GROUND, AIRBORNE, LOST COMMUNICATION, AND
EMERGENCY VOICE PROCEDURES 8-35