Quantcast Chapter 5: Weather Hazards of Turbulence, Icing, Ceilings, Visibility, and Ash Clouds

 

Click here to make tpub.com your Home Page

Page Title: Chapter 5: Weather Hazards of Turbulence, Icing, Ceilings, Visibility, and Ash Clouds
Back | Up | Next

Click here for thousands of PDF manuals

Google


Web
www.tpub.com

Home

   
Information Categories
.... Administration
Advancement
Aerographer
Automotive
Aviation
Construction
Diving
Draftsman
Engineering
Electronics
Food and Cooking
Logistics
Math
Medical
Music
Nuclear Fundamentals
Photography
Religion
   
   

 



CHAPTER FIVE
Weather Hazards of Turbulence, Icing, Ceilings, Visibility, and Ash Clouds
500.
INTRODUCTION
This chapter will cover the causes of turbulence, classification of the various categories of
turbulence, conditions under which turbulence exists, and recommend flying procedures used
when turbulence is encountered. Additionally, it covers the requirements for icing formation,
types of icing, and their effects on aircraft flight and aircraft components, including techniques
that should be followed for safe flight. Finally, this chapter introduces the student to ceilings and
visibility, sky coverage terminology, and the requirements for fog formation and dissipation, plus
a synopsis of the aviation hazards of volcanic ash clouds.
Turbulence is one of the most unexpected aviation hazards to fly through and also one of the
most difficult hazards to forecast. Severe and extreme turbulence has been known to cause
extensive structural damage to military aircraft, with lesser intensities resulting in compressor
stalls, flameouts, and injury to crewmembers and passengers. From minor bumps to severe
mountain wave turbulence, turbulence comes in many forms and is usually worst during the
winter months. Turbulence causes an estimated $30 million in annual aviation assets damage.
Aircraft icing is another aviation weather hazard. Many aircraft accidents and incidents have
been attributed to aircraft icing. In fact, many ice-related mishaps have occurred when the
aircraft was not deiced before attempting takeoff. Most of the time, ground deicing and anti-
icing procedures adequately handle icing formation. However, there are times when pilots are
caught unaware of dangerous ice buildup.
Historically, low ceilings and poor visibilities have contributed to many aircraft accidents. Fog,
heavy snow, heavy rain, blowing sand, and blowing dust all restrict visibility and can result in
low ceilings. Adverse weather conditions causing widespread low ceilings and visibilities can
restrict flying operations for days. Since ceiling and visibility is so important to operational
flying, it is imperative a pilot understands the strict meanings of the two terms. There are many
different kinds of "visibility," but pilots are usually more concerned with "prevailing visibility."
Ash clouds from volcanic eruptions present a unique hazard to aviation. Though most prudent
aviators would choose to keep well clear of any active volcano, certain situations such as
evacuations may require the military to operate in close proximity to ash clouds. The
corresponding causes of aircraft damage are discussed in the last portion of the chapter.
501.
LESSON TOPIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Terminal Objective: Partially supported by this lesson topic:
2.0
Upon completion of this unit of instruction, student aviators and flight officers will
demonstrate knowledge of meteorological theory enabling them to make intelligent
decisions when confronted with various weather phenomena and hazards.
Weather Hazards of Turbulence, Icing, Ceilings, Visibility, and Ash Clouds
5-1


Privacy Statement - Press Release - Copyright Information. - Contact Us

Integrated Publishing, Inc.